ISSN: 2312-6701 (online)
Founder: Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK).
Chief Editor: Knyazev S.D., doc. agri. sci., prof.
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Ýë ¹ ÔÑ 77-77630 îò 31.12.2019 ã.
GENETICS, BREEDING, STUDY OF VARIETIES
Gunina, Yu.S., & Trosko, E.S. (2021). Economic and biological assessment of the summer apple cultivar ‘Erli’ of the Altai selection. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 1-9. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0101
The article presents the results of research on a new apple cultivar of the summer ripening period ‘Erli’, developed by breeders of the Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture for Siberia in 2017—2020. The cultivar was developed by the method of analytical breeding from the free pollination of seedlings of Altai apple cultivars. According to the complex of economically useful characteristics, among the seedlings of 1999, the selected form SO-99-2992 was isolated and grafted (in 2010) on the site of the primary cultivar study. The genotype was passed to the state testing in 2018 under the name Erli. Erli is characterized by the dessert taste of the fruits of the summer ripening period, high resistance to fungal diseases, winter hardiness and good regenerative ability. The tree is medium-sized, with a rounded, medium-thick, wide-spreading symmetrical crown. It bears fruit from the age of 5 years annually; the fruiting is moderate (8.0 t/ha). The fruits are rounded, slightly ribbed, of medium one-dimensionality, weighing up to 100.0 g. The fruits of Erli are superior in weight to the fruits of the control cultivar Altaiskoe Rumyanoye (up to 60.0 g).The main color of the fruits is light yellow, the cover color is in the form of a red blurred-striped blush over most of the fruit. The flesh of the fruit is creamy, tender, fine-grained, juicy, the taste is sweet with aroma. The tasting score of fresh fruit is 4.5 points, compote – 4.7, natural juice – 4.0 points. The taste of fresh fruits in Altaiskoe Rumyanoye is sweet and sour, 4.2 points. The tasting evaluation of processed products (compote, natural juice) from the fruits of the control cultivar is also slightly inferior in its taste characteristics to the compote and juice from the fruits of Erli. Fruits ripen unevenly, starting from the first decade of August, the period of consumption of the collected fruits is 1 week.
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2. Kozlovskaya, Z.A. (2015). Apple breeding in Belarus. Minsk: Belarusian Science. (In Russian).
3. Sedov, E.N., Kalinina, I.P. & Smykov, V.K. (1995). Apple breeding. In E.N. Sedov (Ed.), Program and methods fruit, berry and nut crop breeding (pp. 159-200). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4. Kalinina, I.P., Yashchemskay, Z.S., Makarenko, S.A., Matveeva, E.N., Muravyev, G.A., Kirgizova, G.T. & Kuzmina, A.A. (2011). Apple. In V.I. Usenko & I.A. Puchkina (Eds.), Research programm of breeding department of the Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture for Siberia till 2030 (pp.66–82). Novosibirsk: State Scientific Institution the Lisavenko Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia. (In Russian).
5. Krasova, N.G., & Galasheva, A.M. (2017). Apple variety assessment in the one-variety orchards. Collection of works of the State Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, 144-1, 193-196. (In Russian, English abstract).
6. Sedov, E.N., Krasova, N.G., Zhdanov, V.V., Dolmatov, E.A., & Mozhar, N.V. (1999). Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253-300). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
7. Makarenko, S. A. (2018). Fundamentals of apple breeding in the South of Western Siberia. In Innovative trends in the development of Siberian horticulture: the legacy of academicians M. A. Lisavenko, I. P. Kalinina (pp. 167-173). Barnaul: Koncept. (In Russian).
8. Matveeva, R.N. (2006). Apple tree selection in the Krutovsky Botanical Garden. Krasnoyarsk: SibSTU. (In Russian).
9. Kalinina, I.P. (Ed.). (2005). Siberian sorts of fruit and berry crops of the twentieth centuru. In Pomology (pp. 33–123). Novosibirsk: Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science. (In Russian).
10. Sedov, E.N. (2013). Goals and prospects in apple breeding. In Contemporary cultivars and technologies for intensive orchards: Proc. Sci Conf. (pp. 217-222). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
11. Sedov, E.N., Serova, Z.M., Krasova, N.G., Makarkina, M.A., Ozhereleva, Z.E., & Salina, E.S. (2018). All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding apple varieties as sources and donors of economically valuable characteristics. Horticulture and viticulture, 3, 16-21. https://doi.org/10.25556/VSTISP.2018.3.14169 (In Russian, English abstract).
12. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Makarkina, M.A., Levgerova, N.S., Serova, Z.M., Korneyeva, S.A., Gorbacheva, N.G., Salina, E.S., Yanchuk, T.V., Pikunova, A.V., & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2015). The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract and conclusion).
13. Sitnikova, O.V., Mochalov, V.M., Baeva, S.Y., & Deryuga, N.N. (2016). The main results of the All-Russian Agricultural Census of 2016 for municipal districts and urban districts of the Altai Territory (Vol. 1. Book. 2). Barnaul. (In Russian).
14. Alspach, P.A., & Oraguzie, N.C. (2002). Estimation of genetic parameters of apple (Malus domestica) fruit quality from open-pollinated families. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 30(4), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2002.9514218
15. Velasco, R., Zharkikh, A., Affourtit, J., Dhingra, A., Cestaro, A., Kalyanaraman, A., ... & Viola, R. (2010). The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Nature Genetics, 42(10), 833-839. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.654.
Shakmirzoev, R.A. (2021). Economical and technological assessment of apple cultivars in the central foothill subzone of Dagestan. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 10-18. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0102
Due to a significant change in natural and climatic conditions, the emergence of stress factors that have exacerbated the environmental situation in the region, science is tasked with selecting high-quality, productive and hardy apple cultivars that meet the modern requirements of intensive gardening. This article presents the cultivars of autumn and winter maturation periods (Margo, Modi, Vasilisa, Talisman, Ligol, Nika, Florina and Renet Simerenko of domestic and foreign breeding, cultivated in the conditions of the Central foothill subzone of Dagestan. As a result of the study, a comparative characteristic of the cultivars is given by commodity and consumer qualities and biochemical composition of the fruits. On a 5-point scale, the following apple cultivars had an attractive appearance: Modi – 4.9; Nika – 4.9; Florina – 4.9 points. Of particular importance is the storage capacity of fruits. The longest period of fruit storage (from 180 to 210 days) was observed in Nick, Margo and Modi. The diversity of apple cultivars grown in the region allows to choose the most valuable cultivars, in terms of biochemical and other indicators, for their further use both fresh and processed. Cultivars with an increased content of biologically active substances and vitamin C were identified: Vasilisa (13.2) and Modi (9.9), and Renet Simerenko 7 mg/100g. The level of sugars ranged from 8.3% (Margo) to 12.5% (Modi). A group of cultivars with a complex of quality indicators for introduction into production was recommended and selected: Modi, Margo, Nika, Vasilisa, Talisman and Ligol.
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Puchkin, I.A., & Semeikina, V.M. (2021). Pear phenology in the Altai territory: adaptive and breeding aspects. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 19-27. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0103
The results of studying phenological phases of pear cultivars are presented. The studies were carried out in conditions of the forest-steppe of the Altai Ob region in 2003—2020. The objects of the study were Siberian cultivars Kuyumskaya, Soyuz, Sibiryachka, Zoya, Borey, Zurbagan, Serega, Svarog, Perun, Lel, Kupava, Karataevskaya, Tema, Vnuchka, Olga, Povislaya, Krasulya and Veselinka. These cultivars are hybrids of Ussurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) with common pear (P. domestica Medik.). North Chinese cultivars Vusian, Chusian, Chuhuan, Pin-go-li and common pear cultivars Podarok Octobrya and Naryadnaya Efimova were also studied. The aim was to determine the features of phenological phases development of pear cultivars from FASCA collection in the forest-steppe of the Altai Ob region, to identify the sources of individual components of adaptability and to recommend them for breeding. It is established that most Siberian cultivars are well adapted to short vegetation period and early winter frosts, they can be planted in open form in the forest-steppe of Altai Ob region. North Chinese cultivars Vusian, Chusian and Chuhuan are close to them in these characteristics. Common pear cultivars do not finish vegetation period and have significant frost damage, they can only be grown in trailing form in our conditions. The differentiation of flower buds of Siberian pear cultivars runs faster than in European ones, flower buds are fully formed in autumn, so they are not tolerant to thaw of autumn-winter period. Early differentiation of generative buds leads to their insufficient winter hardiness and early flowering. For further breeding we recommend the following sources: late-flowering – Lel high winter hardiness of generative buds – Tema, Sibiryachka and Kuyumskaya, cold resistance of flowers – Tema, late-ripening – Povislaya, Pin-go-li, Vusian and Chusian.
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Nevostrueva, E.Yu., Andreeva, G.V., & Pavlova, O.A. (2021). Improving the assortment of strawberries for the Volga-Vyatka region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 28-35. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0104
Strawberry is one of the most widespread and popular berry crops. It is known for its dietary and medicinal properties of berries, early fruiting and early ripening. This culture is the second for ripening, after honeysuckle. But the fruiting period of strawberries is rather short and, depending on the cultivation regions, is about a month. In the conditions of the Volga-Vyatka region of Russia, fruiting lasts for 3.0—3.5 weeks in July. It is possible to increase the period of consumption of fresh berries by cultivating cultivars of a late ripening period. In the zoned assortment of strawberries, there is only one cultivar with late ripening – Borovitskaya, bred by the Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery. This cultivar freezes up to 3.0 points in some areas of the Volga-Vyatka region and, as a result, has a low yield. Therefore, there is a need to develop new late-ripening cultivars with high adaptability to the conditions of the growing region. Studies for the trait of late maturity were carried out on 554 hybrid seedlings of 9 families. The greatest number of late seedlings was distinguished by the families obtained from late-maturing initial forms – Malling Pandora × Borovitskaya and Malling Pandora × Amulet (81.2—87.5%). In other families, the yield of seedlings with this trait was lower: 6.5—57.1%. Among the studied hybrid seedlings, 9 were selected, studied in 2014—2016 in comparison with the control cultivar Borovitskaya. Late-ripening seedlings 1-43-10 and 2-43-10 from the Solovushka × Marmolada family, underwent the initial cultivar study by a complex of qualities in 2017—2019. According to the results of which the seedling 1-43-10, named Altyn, was transferred to the State Testing.
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Kiseleva, E.N., Rachenko, M.A., Kamyshova, L.E., & Rachenko, A.M. (2021). Suitability of primocane-fruiting raspberry for storage at different temperatures under normal atmospheric conditions. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 36-47. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0105
Since September 2014, the government of the Russian Federation has carried out the program of import substitution of the industry. One of the tasks of the program is to replace the market imports by domestically produced substitutes. The difficulty arising from the sale of fresh berries lies in a short storage life of this product. This is the reason to study the duration of the storage period of berries. The paper introduces the research carried out at the station called Phytotron in the Department of Applied and Experimental Development of Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Irkutsk). The studies were carried out from 2019 to 2020. The berries were stored in the climate chamber MKT (Binder). The research objects were berries of 10 cultivars and 3 selected forms (Yevraziya, Pingvin, Zolotyye Kupola, Oranzhevoye Chudo, Brilliantovaya, Rubinovoye Ozherel´ye, Shapka Monomakha, Gerakl, Zhar Ptitsa, Bryanskoye Divo, 32-151-1, 37-15-4 and 1-220-1) of domestic primocane-fruiting raspberry. Particular attention was paid to the storage period of the berries. The berries were stored in atmospheric air and constant humidity 50…60%. Temperature and air access into the storage containers were the changing factors. The berries were harvested in favorable weather, not earlier than 2 days after watering or rain, closer to noon, after drying from the morning dew, in the commercial maturity stage. The berries were weighed and cooled at +4…+6°C for 2…4 hours. During storage, every two days, an organoleptic assessment of the quality of berries was carried out in accordance with GOST 33915-2016. The appearance, smell, number of fermented, moldy and decayed specimens were evaluated. The organoleptic method was used. The berries of optimal maturity, without mechanical injury and signs of pathogens, were selected for storage. The berries were then placed in plastic containers in a small number in 3…4 layers. According to the research results, the best temperature conditions for storing fresh berries were noted. Good storage was observed at +1...+2°C and -1...0°C. During the long-term storage at low temperatures (-1...0°C), ice crystals were formed. They led to the commercial quality decrease. Such cultivars as Yevraziya, Pingvin, Rubinovoye Ozherel´ye, Shapka Monomakha, Gerakl, and Zhar Ptitsa were marked as promising ones for long-term storage. The regularity between the density of berries and their keeping quality is noted.
1. Androsova, A.V., & Ozhereleva, Z.E. (2020). Parameters of the water regime of raspberries under the influence of drought and heat shock. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 1 (1-2), 10-13. https://doi.org/10.24411/2500-0454-2020-11202 (In Russian, English abstract). 2. Venger, K.P., Popkov, V.I., Feskov, O.A., Shishkina, NS, Karastoyanova, O.V., & Shatalova, N.I. (2017). Rapid freezing of herbal products by gaseous nitrogen. Journal of International Academy of Refrigeration, 4, 66-74. https://doi.org/ 10.21047/1606-4313-2017-16-4-66-74 (In Russian, English abstract). 3. Interstate Standard (2016). Fresh raspberries and blackberries. Specifications (GOST 33915-2016). Moscow: Standartinform. (In Russian) 4. Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the Field Experiment (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian). 5. Evdokimenko, S.N., & Alekseenko, I.V. (2019). Biological potential of remontant raspberries in breeding for productivity. Collection of works of the State Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, 148, 170-179. https://doi.org/10.25684/NBG.scbook.148.2019.18 (In Russian, English abstract). 6. Emelyanova, O.V., Krivorot, A.M., & Martsinkevich, D.I. (2016). Process regulations of fruit storage of autumn raspberry. Fruit-growing, 28, 365-377. (In Russian) 7. Matnazarova, D.I. (2019). Biochemical assessment of raspberry fruit is the first stage of breeding for the improvement of chemical fruit composition. Bulletin of Agrarian Science, 6, 166-170. https://doi.org/10.15217/issn2587-666X.2019.6.166 (In Russian, English abstract). 8. Anonimous (2021). Compare Data. FAOSTAT. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/faostat/ru/#compare 9. Anonimous (2021). World raspberry production by country. Maps and statistics of the world and regions. Retrieved from: https://www.atlasbig.com/ru/ñòðàíû-ïî-ïðîèçâîäñòâó-ìàëèíû 10. Anonimous (2021). Indicators characterizing import substitution in Russia. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved from: https://rosstat.gov.ru/folder/11188 11. Anonimous (2021). Recommended norms of food consumption.doc. Office of Rospotrebnadzor in the Irkutsk region. Retrieved from: http://38.rospotrebnadzor.ru/c/journal/view_article_content?groupId=10156&articleId=148291&version=1.0 12. Pershakova, T.V., & Kabalina, D.V. (2017). Ways to provide stability of raw material during storage. Polythematic online scientific journal of Kuban state agrarian university, 131, 1056-1066. https://doi.org/10.21515/1990-4665-131-087 (In Russian, English abstract). 13. Rusanova, L.A. (2013). Modern way to store fruits, vegetables, berries and grapes. Services sector: innovation and quality, 13, 11. (In Russian, English abstract). 14. Sazonova, I.D. (2018). Berry crops as raw materials for technical processing. Scientific publications îf FSBSO NÑRRIH&V, 20, 125-134. Retrieved from: https://kubansad.ru/media/uploads/files/nauchnye_trudy_skzniisiv/tom_20/21.pdf (In Russian, English abstract). 15. Kazakov, I.V., Gruner, L.A., & Kichina, V.V. (1999). Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 374-395). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian). 16. Chugunova, O.V., Zavorohina, N.V., & Vyatkin, A.V. (2019). The research of antioxidant activity and its changes during storage of fruit and berry raw materials of the Sverdlovsk region. Agrarian Bulletin of the Urals, 11, 59-61. https://doi.org/10.32417/article_5dcd861e8e0053.57240026 (In Russian, English abstract). 17. Strautina, S., Krasnova, I., Kalnina, I., & Kampuss, K. (2012). Results of red raspberry breeding in Latvia. Acta Horticulturae, 946, 171-176 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.946.26 18. Seglina, D., Krasnova, I., Heidemane, G., Kampuse, S., Dukalska, L., & Kampuss, K. (2010). Packaging technology influence on the shelf life extension of fresh raspberries. Acta Horticulturae, 877, 433-440. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.877.56.
Androsova, A.V., & Prudnikov, P.S. (2021). The effect of treatment by some growth regulators on the ability to form runners of strawberry. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 48-54. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0106
Due to its useful and taste properties, plasticity in relation to growing conditions, strawberry is one of the most common berry crops. Various methods can be used to propagate strawberry bushes, however, at present, the most common method is the use of runners. Therefore, it is necessary to know the ability to form runners of strawberry cultivars, both for agricultural organizations, and for end users. However, the ability to form runners of different cultivars is not the same and does not always meet the necessary needs. To solve the problem of increasing biological productivity the using of various methods is offered, and one of the priorities is the scientifically based application of plant growth regulators. The purpose of our research was to study the effect of treatments on the ability to form runners of strawberry plants with some growth regulators – "Saldo" containing 6-benzyladenine and the substance kinetin, belonging to the group of cytokinins. To study the effect of treatments, two strawberry cultivars were used: Frida (Norway) and Urozhaynaya TsGL (Russia). The accounting was carried out according to the following characteristics: the number of runners (pcs./plant) and the number of daughter rosettes (pcs./plant), according to the Program and methods of cultivar investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Both cultivars were treated with the "Saldo" drug. Urozhaynaya TsGL was additionally treated with kinetin and a mixture of kinetin and a complex of mineral-organic compounds Gumi-30 Universal. The plants of the same cultivars treated with water were used as a control. The conclusion was made about the effectiveness of treating strawberry plants with the growth regulators "Saldo" (JSC "Shchelkovo Agrochem”) and the kinetin. Thus, under the influence of “Saldo” treatments, an increase in the ability to form strawberry runners was noted in both cultivars, compared with the control. In Frida, an increase in the formation of runners occurred by 2.3 times, and of daughter rosettes by 2.2 times, while in Urozhaynaya TsGL, an increase in the formation of runners and daughter rosettes occurred by 1.2 times. After kinetin treatment, an increase in the number of rosettes was noted by 1.5 times for Urozhaynaya TsGL.
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Stupina, A.Yu., & Prudnikov, P.S. (2021). Chlormequatñhloride as a modificator of resistance to hypotermia Fragaria ananassa Duch. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 55-62. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0107
One of the important criterions for adapting and resisting to extreme environmental conditions is an adaptation to action of different stressors. The purpose of the research was to study the influence of chloromequatchloride on the physiological and biochemical processes of Fragaria ananassa Duch. For our research, we used the cultivars of strawberry Tsaritsa and Urozhaynaya TsGL. At the first decade of September, foliar applications were carried out with the solution of the growth regulator “Athlete”, which contained a chloromequatchloride. The activity of antioxidant protection system (catalase, proline, sugars) and the analysis of the intensity of lipoperoxidation processes (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde) were carried out in the leaves of strawberries. It was shown, that the treatment of strawberry cultivars with chloromequatchloride in autumn contributed to a decrease in the processes of lipoperoxidation in plant tissues, whereas an increase in the content of MDA was observed in the control variants: in Tsaritsa by 14.5%, and in Urozhaynaya TsGL by 40.4%. This indicates about better safety of the structural and functional integrity of the cell membranes in plants, which were treated by the “Athlete” preparation. The increase of resistance was occurred both due to the modification of antioxidant activity and a decrease in the formation of ROS, on the example of hydrogen peroxide. The content of H2O2 was less in the leaf tissues of the plants treated with chloromequatchloride: by 46.9% in Tsaritsa, and in Urozhaynaya TsGL by 35.5% lower than in the control variants. When analyzing the catalase activity in experimental plants, the ferment intensification was noted by 19.8% and 22.9% respectively, while no changes were noted in the control variants. The amount of amino acid in Tsaritsa and in Urozhaynaya TsGL increased by 27.1% and 32.3%, respectively, while in the control cultivar Tsaritsa by 12.2%, and in Urozhaynaya TsGL by 9.2%.
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