The main results of apple breeding at the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) are presented. The breeding work made it possible to create 53 apple cultivars and include them in the State Register of selection achievements. 18 apple cultivars of different ripening of the fruit were allocated of them and some detailed descriptions are given.
Avgusta. A late summer scab resistant cultivar with beautiful fruits with above average fruit weight (160 g) and good taste.
Maslovskoye. A triploid scab immune cultivar with large fruits (220 g) with pink blush and very juicy tasty flesh.
Osipovskoye. A triploid cultivar with average fruit weight (130 g). The consumption period lasts till mid September.
Yablochny Spas. A summer triploid cultivar with large trees, large fruits (200 g) with white greenish flesh.
Orlovskoye Polosatoye. The trees are of average size, fruits are of above average weight (160 g) with bright red stripes. The fruit flesh is white, tender and very juicy. The attractive appearance of the fruits is estimated by 4.6 points, the taste – 4.3 points.
Solnyshko. A late autumn scab immune cultivar with fruit weight of 140 g, with crimson blush; harvest date is in mid September, storage life till February.
Afrodita. The trees are large, fruits (125 g) of bright crimson color. The appearance and taste – 4.4 points. The fruit flesh is white. The storage life is till late December.
Bolotovskoye. The trees are of average size. The fruits (150 g) have a red blush. Fruit flesh is white. The appearance and taste – 4.4 points. The cultivar is immune to scab.
Vavilovskoye. A triploid scab immune cultivar, the fruits are flattened (170 g) with blurred color on the part of the fruit. Fruit flesh is white and very juicy. The storage life till March.
Veniaminovskoye. Immune to scab. Trees are large. Fruits (130 g) are covered with crimson blush, storage life till late February. Veteran. Trees with spherical crown. Fruits (130 g) are harvested on the 20th of September, the storage life till mid March, appearance and taste – 4.4 points.
Imrus. Scab immune. Fruits (140 g) are conic. The cover color is in a form of blush and red speckles. Storage life till mid February.
Candil Orlovsky. Scab immune. Fruits (120 g) have crimson blush. appearance and taste – 4.4/4.3 points, storage till February.
Orlik. Fruits of 120 – 130 g. Appearance and taste – 4.4/4.5 points, flesh is creamy and very juicy, storage till mid February.
Pamyat Voinu. Trees are high. Fruits (140 g) are flattened, color in bands and speckles of the color of beet. Appearance and taste – 4.4/4.3 points, storage till February.
Priokskoye. Columnar scab immune cultivar. Fruits (150 g) with dark red color, white flesh and very juicy. Appearance and taste – 4.5/4.4 points. Rozhdestvenskoye. Triploid scab immune cultivar with fruits of 140 g. Appearance and taste – 4.4/4.3 points. Storage till late January.
Sinap Orlovsky. Triploid cultivar. Vigorous trees. Fruits (150 g) are colored only on the sun side. Appearance and taste – 4.3/4.5 points. Storage till May.
2. Sedov, E.N. (ed.) (1995). Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3. Sedov, E.N., Krasova, N.G., Zhdanov, V.V., Dolmatov, E.A., & Mozhar, N.V. (1999). Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253-300). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4. Sedov, E.N. (2011). Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract and conclusion).
5. Sedov, E.N. (2018). Breeding and improvement of apple assortment in Russia (popularization of breeding achievements). Orel: VNIISPK. P. 96. (In Russian).
6. Sedov, E.N., & Sedysheva, G.A. (1985). A role of polyploidy in apple breeding. Tula: Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
7. Sedysheva, G.A. & Sedov, E.N. (1994). Polyploidy and apple breeding. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Makarkina, M.A., Levgerova, N.S., Serova, Z.M., Korneyeva, S.A., Gorbacheva, N.G., Salina, E.S., Yanchuk, T.V., Pikunova, A.V., & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2015). The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian. English abstract and conclusion).
9. Sedov, E.N., Serova, Z.M., Yanchuk, T.V., Makarkina, M.A. & Korneyeva, S.A. (2018). The best apple cultivars of the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (popularization of breeding achievements). Orel: VNIISPK. P. 62. (In Russian).
The article presents the experimental results on application of soft-beam micro-focus X-ray diffraction in shadberry breeding. Experiments revealed the seeds under investigation to have hidden, invisible to the naked eye defects. All seeds were divided into six groups: healthy seeds, the seeds with underdeveloped endosperm, hollow seeds; the seeds with detached seed coat; insect-damaged seeds; and rotten seeds. The distribution of shadberry seed defects was almost equal, except for the rotten seeds, which were twice as much as other defective seeds. The smallest number of seeds was affected by the seed coat detachment. According to the study outcomes, approximately one fifth of the seeds had invisible damages, which were detected without mechanical impact or chemical exposure that result in the complete loss of seeds under investigation. The seeds after the micro-focus radiography remained fully preserved for further use and the soundest seeds could be selected. Reliability and accuracy of the shadberry seed quality examination with micro-focus X-ray diffraction was verified by determining the viability of the seeds by sprouting them in laboratory conditions. The number of healthy seeds according to radiography results corresponded to the number of strong germinated seeds according to the laboratory germination results. Thus, micro-focus X-ray analysis can be successfully applied to determine the shadberry seed quality in order to use these seeds for further crop breeding. Conclusions that could be drawn include the following: the X-ray diffraction method can be successfully used to determine the quality of shadberry seeds in the breeding process; it detects the invisible defects of the seed internal structure and allows to select efficiently the healthy hybrid seeds of shadberry for subsequent sowing; the method can be performed over a short period of time; it is especially effective in screening a small number of seeds in shadberry breeding.
2. Bezukh, E.P., Potrakhov, N.N., & Bessonov, V.B. (2016). Application of microfocus X-ray diffraction for quality control of fruit crop seeds.Tekhnologii i tekhnicheskie sredstva mekhanizirovannogo proizvodstva produkcii rastenievodstva i zhivotnovodstva, 89, 106-112. (In Russian, English abstract).
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5. Derunov, I.V. (2004). X-ray examination of seeds of various crops and their processing products. (Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Agrophysical Research Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia. (In Russian).
6. Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the Field Experiment (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
7. Ivanov, V.F. (1995). Introduction and study of shadberry in Krasnoyarsk. In Problems of production and processing of rare small-fruit and berry crops: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 45-47). Minsk. (In Russian).
8. Korunchikova, V.V. (1993). Introduction results of some species of Amelanchier genus in the Botanical Garden. Bulletin of the I.S. Kosenko Botanical Garden. (pp. 21-25). (In Russian).
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11. Musayev, F.B., Antoshkina, M.S., Arkhipov, M.V., Velikanov, L.P., Gusakova, L.P., Bessonov, V.B., Gryaznov, A.Yu., Zhamova, K.K., Kosov, V.O., Potrakhov, Ye.N., & Potrakhov, N.N. (2015). X-ray analysis of the quality of vegetable seeds (guidance). Moscow, Sankt-Peterburg: 2015. 42 p.
12. Staroverov, N.Ye., Gryaznov, A.Yu., Zhamova, K.K, Tkachenko, K.G, & Firsov, G.A. (2015). The application of the method of microfocus X-ray for quality control of fruits and seeds reproductive diasporas. Biotechnosfera, 6 (42), 16-19. (In Russian, English abstract).
13. Stepanova, A.V., Sorokapudov, V.N., Sorokapudova, O.A. et al. (2013). Prospects of selection of the mespilus in the Belgorod region. Modern problems of science and education, 6. Retrieved from: http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=11117. (In Russian, English abstract).
14. Khromov, N.V. (2007). Evaluation of Amelanchier gene pool by economic and biologic characteristics and the breeding technology in the Tambov region (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis), Michurinsk State Agrarian University, Michurinsk, Russia. (In Russian).
Apple breeding with polyploidy using is a promising direction that allows along with other traditional methods to significantly expand the possibility of obtaining new varieties with high adaptive capacity and great biological potential suitable for cultivation in intensive gardens. Tetraploids as donors of diploid gametes are necessary for obtaining triploid varieties. Having a wide diversity of tetraploid initial genotypes for intervalent crosses, we can count on mass production of triploid hybrids with a wide range of variability, and therefore, a high probability of selection of apple varieties at the triploid level with a set of useful properties that meet the requirements of intensive gardening. Apple breeding at the polyploid level is impossible without cytological control both at the stage of selection and creation of initial forms and at the stage of evaluation of polyploid varieties and hybrids obtained as a result of hybridization. The cytological control of hybrid offspring has been conducted. The analysis of microsporogenesis in tetraploid apples has been studied. The ploidy of hybrid apple seedlings from different chromosomal crosses in the amount of 200 plants from three hybrid families was analyzed: on average, 85.0% of plants were triploid with 2n=3x=51 chromosomes and 15.0% – diploid with 2n=2x=34 chromosomes for all combinations of crossing. The meiosis at microsporogenesis was studied in form 34-21-39 (4x) [30-47-88 [Liberty × 13-6-106 (s.s. Suvorovetz)] (4x) × Krasa Sverdlovska (2x)]. The obtained data give the possibility to conclude that apple tetraploid 34-21-39 (4x) may be used in breeding as a pollinator.
2. Kaptar, S.G. (1967). A faster propionic-lacmoid method of preparing and staining temporary cytological specimens for plant chromosome counts. Cytology and genetics, 1(4), 87-90. (In Russian).
3. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Makarkina, M.A., Levgerova, N.S., Serova, Z.M., Korneyeva, S.A., Gorbacheva, N.G., Salina, E.S., Yanchuk, T.V., Pikunova, A.V., & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2015). The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian. English abstract and conclusion).
4. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Krasova, N.G., Serova, Z.M. & Yanchuk, T.V. (2017). Advantages and prospects of new triploid apple varieties for production. Horticulture and viticulture, 2, 24-30. https://doi.org/10.18454/VSTISP.2017.2.5441. (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Sedov, E.N. (2017). Economical and biological characteristics of fundamentally new summer triploid apple varieties having immunity to scab. Bulletin of Michurinsk state agrarian university, 3, 27-30. (In Russian, English abstract).
6. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Serova, Z.M. & Yanchuk, T.V. (2017). Scab immune, triploid and columnar apple varieties bred at ARRIFCB and breeding prospects. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 48(1), 226–231. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Serova, Z.M. & Yanchuk, T.V. (2018).
Intervalent crossing is the main way to create triploid apple varieties. Russian agricultural science, 3, 6-10. (In Russian, English abstract).
8. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., & Serova, Z.M. (2008). Apple breeding on a polyploidy level. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9. Sedysheva, G.A., Sedov, E.N., Gorbacheva, N.G., Serova, Z.M. & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2013). A new donor of selectively significant features for the creation of triploid, adaptive, high-quality apple varieties. Horticulture and viticulture, 1, 13-18. (In Russian, English abstract).
10. Sedysheva, G.A., Sedov, E.N., Gorbacheva, N.G., Serova & Melnik, S.A. (2017). The efficiency of heteroploid crossings IN MALUS MILL and cytological control in the development of triploid varieties. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 6-11. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2017/1/2.pdf DOI: 10.24411/2218-5275-2017-00002 (In Russian, English abstract).
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It has been discovered and described 4 kinds of tumours on roots and 2 kinds tumours on the stems of fruit plants. Researsh of the normal vegetatively propagated stocks and of the galls on fruit wild hedge rose have been carried out. On the basis of hystological and hystochemistrical studies was shown analogy plants tumour with animals tumour. The complex of substances contributing abundance growing tissue was defined supposedly this substance are phitohormones. In the meristem centers found protein containing iron. Shapes of meristem become alike by turbulent whirlwind. The study was made in Volgograd Experimental Station of the All-Union Research Institute of the Plant Growing.
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The Federal scientific and technical program for the development of agriculture of the Russian Federation for 2017—2025 defines a strategy for the scientific and technical development of the horticulture industry, which provides priority directions for stable growth in the production of fruit and berry competitive products. At present, a significant proportion of consumed fruit is imported. To meet the needs of the population in fruit production, a significant increase in the area including in the
2. Zhuravleva, E.V. (2018). On the scientifi c support of the developmentof nursery industry in Russia. Horticulture and viticulture, 2, 5-7. https://doi.org/10.25556/VSTISP.2018.2.12254 (In Russian. English abstract).
3. Koroliov, E.Yu., Krasova, N.G., & Galasheva, A.M. (2018). The effect of individual techniques of stimulating branching of annual apple seedlings. Horticulture and viticulture, 3, 42-47. https://doi.org/10.25556/VSTISP.2018.3.14173 (In Russian. English abstract).
4. Kulikov, I.M., Zavrazhnov, A.I., Upadyshev, M.T., Borisova, A.A., & Tumaeva, T.A. (2018). Scientific and methodological foundations of industrial agrotechnology for the production of certified planting stock of fruit and small fruit crops in the Russian Federation. Horticulture and viticulture, 1, 30-35. https://doi.org/10.25556/VSTISP.2018.1.10500 (In Russian. English abstract).
5. Minakov, I.A., & Kulikov, I.M. (2018). Problems and prospects of development of horticulture in Russia. Horticulture and viticulture, 6, 40-46. https://doi.org/10.31676/0235-2591-2018-6-40-46 (In Russian. English abstract).
6. Sedov, E.N. (2011). Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian. English abstract).
7. The Federal scientific and technical program for the development of agriculture for 2017-2025. (2017). In Collection of the legislation of the Russian Federation. 36, Article 5421, pp. 15467-15391. (In Russian).
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Strawberry is a leading commercial berry crop. It is rightfully ranked first in the world among berry crops due to excellent taste, attractive appearance and early ripening. The constant introduction of this culture from different countries contributes to the expansion of the assortment and the involvement of new genotypes in the breeding process. But often the most productive large-fruited varieties have low winter hardiness. When studying strawberry varieties in Central Russia, the selection of winter-hardy varieties is still the main task. Resistance to low temperatures is one of the most important characteristics of the variety for strawberries in the Central region. Strawberries die in snowless winters when the temperature drops to -15...-18°C, but can tolerate temperature up to -25...-35°C in the presence of snow cover at least 20...30 cm. Frosts after thaw are also dangerous for plants when the snow melts at the ground and the snow crust remains on top. Damping out of bushes is observed. In this work some features of cold adaptation of strawberry plants are considered. Critical temperatures at the beginning of winter and after return frosts and thaws are noted. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies that determine the resistance and adaptation ability of strawberry plants in autumn-winter have been generalized. The role of proline, carbohydrates and low-molecular proteins in the process of hypothermia is shown. General biological laws of processes of hardening and preparation of plants for winter are considered. The need for a more detailed and in-depth study of physiological, biochemical and genetic processes of winter hardiness of strawberries is shown.
2. Aytzhanova, S.D. (2002). Strawberry breeding in the south-west part of Non-Chernozem zone of Russia (Agri. Sci. Doc. Thesis). Bryansk State Agrarian Academy, Bryansk, Russia. (In Russian).
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5. Vezhnik, Yu.V., Talanova, V.V., & Titov, A.F. (2015). Ultrastructural transformation of chloroplasts in wheat leaves during cold adaptation. In Plants in conditions of global and local climatic and anthropogenic impacts (p. 98). Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Centre. (In Russian).
6. Govorova, G.F., & Govorov, D.N. (2004). Strawberries: Past, Present, Future. Moscow: Rosinformagrotech, (In Russian).
7. Dzhavadian, N., Karimzade, G., Mafuzi, S., & Ganaty, F. (2010). Cold-induced changes in enzyme activity and proline, carbohydrate and chlorophyll content in wheat. Plant physiology, 57(4), 580-588. (In Russian).
8. Kozlovskaya, Z.A., Yarmolich, S.A., & Marudo, G.M. (2008). Method of accelerated assessment of apple winter hardiness using direct freezing. Fruit-growing, 20, 265-276. (In Russian, English abstract).
9. Kolodyazhna, Ya.S., Kutsokon, N.K., Levenko, B.A., Syutikova, O.C., Rakhmetov, D.B., & Kochetov, A.V. (2009). Transgenic plants tolerant to abiotic stresses. Cytology and Genetics, 2, 72-93. (In Russian, English abstract).
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11. Naraikina, M.S., Sinkevich, M.S., Deryabin, A.N., Trunova, T.I. (2018). Activities of Hydrogen Peroxide-Scavenging Enzymes during Low-Temperature Hardening of Potato Plants Transformed by the desA Gene of Δ12-Acyl-Lipid Desaturase. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 65(5), 667-673. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443718040064
12. Ozherelieva, Z.E., & Zubkova, M.I. (2017). Frost resistance of strawberry varieties in controlled conditions. Pomiculture & Small Fruits Culture in Russia, 48(1), 183-186. (In Russian, English abstract).
13. Petrov, K.A., Sofronov, V.E., Bubyakina, V.V., Perk, A.A., Tatarinova, T.D., Ponomarev, A.T., Chepalov, V.A., Okhlopkova, Zh.M., Vasilieva, I.V., & Maksimov, T.H. (2011). Woody plants of Yakutia and low-temperature stress. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 58(6), 1011-1019. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443711060148
14. Perk, A.A., Tatarinova, T.D., Ponomarev, A.G., Vasilieva, I.V., & Bubyakina, V.V. (2017). Dehydrins in the formation of cryostability of woody plants under extreme temperatures of Yakutia. In Modern aspects of structural and functional biology of plants: from molecules to ecosystems: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 303-311). Orel: Orel State University. (In Russian, English abstract).
15. Polesskaya, O.G. (2007). Plant cell and active oxygen forms: manual. Moscow : KDU. (In Russian).
16. Pradedova, E.V., Isheyeva, O.D., & Salyaev, R.K. (2011). Classification of the antioxidant defense system as the ground for reasonable organization of experimental studies of the oxidative stress in plants. Russian Journal of Plant physiology, 58(2), 210-217. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443711020166
17. Prudnikov, P.S., Ozherelieva, Z.E., Krivushina, D.A., & Zubkova, M.I. (2017). Features of the accumulation of protective compounds and changes in the fractional composition of water in leaves of Fragaria ananassa Duch. in autumn. In Modern aspects of structural and functional biology of plants: from molecules to ecosystems: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 2226-236). Orel: Orel State Universit. (In Russian, English abstract).
18. Prudnikov, P.S., Krivushina, D.A., Ozherelyeva, Z.E., & Gulyaeva, A.A. (2017). The effect of negative temperature on the activity of the components of the antioxidant system and the intensity of the Prunus avium L. Periodic scientific and methodological e-journal "Koncept", 31, 1256–1260. Retrieved from http://e-koncept.ru/2017/970266.htm. (In Russian).
19. Prudnikov, P.S., Krivushina, D.A., & Gulyaeva, A.A. (2016). Antioxidant system components and lipid peroxidation intensity of Prúnus Cerásus L. under hyperthermia and drought. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 3, 116-119. (In Russian, English abstract).
20. Prudnikov, P.S., Krivushina, D.A., & Zubkova, M.I. (2018). Study the factious composition of water of the ordinary raspberry plants common at autumn period. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 5(1), 101-103. (In Russian, English abstract).
21. Radyukina, N.L. (2015). Functioning of antioxidant system of wild plant species under short-term action of stressors (Biology Sci. Doctor Thesis). Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian).
22. Repkina, N.S. (2014). Ecological and physiological study of adaptation mechanisms of wheat plants to separate and combined impact of low temperature and cadmium (Biology Sci. Cand. Thesis). Petrozavodsk State University, Petrazovodsk, Russia. (In Russian).
23. Sinkevich, M.S., Naraikina, N.V., & Trunova, T.I. (2011). Processes hindering activation of lipid peroxidation in cold-tolerant plants under hypothermia. Russian Journal of Plant physiology, 58(6), 1020-1026. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1021443711050232
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Brief biographical information is given to the gardeners-scientists and participants of the Great Patriotic War who in the postwar years gave all their strength to the most peaceful work – gardening. Many of these scientists are known due to their scientific developments, cultivars, technologies and they are authors of the textbooks, monographs and other major publications on horticulture. Professor Trushechkin Vasiliy Grigorievich (1923-2012), a hero of the