Nanking cherry is a fast-fertile, high-yielding and permanent crop which is popular among amateur gardeners of Transbaikal area for its early ripening and good quality of fresh and processed fruits. Thanks to these qualities it has spread widely in the amateur gardens where it is represented by common seedlings and vegetatively propagated selected seedlings. Thus, the aim of our work is to create the assortment of Nanking cherry in the region by economic-biological estimation of selected Nanking cherries and transferring the most perspective of them to the State Strain Testing. The article summarizes long-termed experimental research on Nanking cherry variety Altana and the results of competitive selection of Altana (1993–2000) comparing to the best standard.
37-8-66. Altana has been created by individual selection of the best forms among open pollination female parent seedlings. The research done in Buryat Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture allowed creating and transferring for the first time to the State Strain Testing a comparatively winterhardy Nanking cherry multipurpose variety with high potential productivity and moderately late ripening, with sweet and sour tasted fruits. Altana is equal or exceed the the control variety in many indicators. The new variety has higher winter hardiness, productivity, fruit weight and vitamin P content. It stands down a little the control in heat resistance. The variety basic advantages are shot-hole disease resistance in conditions of Buryatia, high productivity, pleasant fruit taste, fruit peel is thick, when overripening the pulp doesn’t leak out.
2. Batueva, Yu.M. (2014). Winter features and winterhardiness estimation of apple varieties in Buryatia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 1-4. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/4/50.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Batueva Yu.M., Guseva N.K., & Vasileva N.A. (2015). Adaptive selective breeding of fruit and berry crops in Buryatia. Bulletin of Altai State Agricultural University, 12,15-19. (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Guseva N.K., Batueva Yu.M., & Vasileva N.A. (2016). Catalogue of fruit, berry and ornamental crops. Ulan-Ude: Buryatia Scientific Center of SB RAS (in Russian).
5. Kalinina I.P. (Ed.) (2005). Siberian sorts of fruit and berry crops of the twentieth century.In Pomology (pp. 219-220). Novosibirsk: Siberian Branch of Agrarian Science. (in Russian).
6. Dzhigadlo E.N., Kolesnikova A.F., Eremin G.V., Morozova T.V., Debiskaeva S.Yu., Kanshina M.V., Medvedeva N.I., & Simagin V.S. (1999). Stone fruit crops. In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 300-351). Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
7. Guseva, N.K., Shiripnimbueva, B.T., Arbakov, K.A., & Batueva, Yu.M. (2010). Horticulture in Buryatia. Ulan-Ude: Buryat State Agricultural Academy. (In Russian).
Crossings with polyploidy apples 4x × 4x, 4x × 3x, 4x × 2x, 3x × 4x, 3x × 3x, 3x × 2x, 2x × 4x and 2x × 3x have been carried out at the All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding in the frames of the program of apple breeding with polyploidy using. The cytological control of the hybrid progeny has been conducted. Crossings with anorthoploids are not of breeding value, since the most part of the hybrid plants from these crossings has an aneuploid number of chromosomes and that is the reason of their poor development and early death. Heteroploid crossings 2x × 4x and 4x × 2x are efficient for practical breeding with the goal of creating triploid varieties. 19 triploid apple varieties have already been obtained from such crossings. On the average, the ploidy analysis of seedlings from crossings 2x × 4x has shown 32.6% of diploid, 67.2% of triploid and 0.2% of tetraploid plants while in crossings 4x × 2x 6.2% of diploid, 40.5% of triploid and 53.3% of tetraploid plants have been formed. 30-47-88 (4x) is a promising donor of diploid gametes; 71.8% of triploid plants are formed with its participation in crossings 2x × 4x.
2. Domracheva, I. I. (1985). The use of a triploid apple variety in hybridization and results of cytological study of hybrid seedlings. In Apple breeding for fruit quality improvement (pp. 191-195). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3. Kaptar, S.G. (1967). A faster propionic-lacmoid method of preparing and staining temporary cytological specimens for plant chromosome counts. Cytology and genetics, 1(4), 87-90. (In Russian).
4. Liznev, V. N., & Basina, I. G. (1982). Spontaneous triploid varieties of apple and their progeny. Genetika, 18(3), 469. (In Russian).
5. Sedov, E.N., Krasova, N.G., Zhdanov, V.V., Dolmatov, E.A., & Mozhar, N.V. (1999). Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253-300). Orel, VNIISPK (In Russian).
6. Rudenko, I. S., & Dudukal, G. D. (1972). Idle time and quick method of preparing of temporary preparations for cytological studies of fruit crops. Cytology and genetics, 6(3), 266-268. (In Russian).
7. Sedov, E. N., Sedysheva, G. A. & Serova Z. M. (2008). Apple breeding on a polyploidy level. In Plodoovoshchnoe khozyaistvo (pp. 366). Moscow.
8. Sedov, E. N. (2011). Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9. Sedov, E. N., Sedysheva, G. A., Serova, Z. M., & Gorbacheva, N. G. (2014). Autogamy of polylploidy apple varieties and selections. Russian Agricultural Sciences, 3, 21-23. (In Russian, English abstract).
10. Sedysheva, G. A. (1990).Approaching to the color of somatic chromosomes in fruit plants. In Varieties and technology for modern orchard (pp. 24-27). Tula, Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
11. Crane, M. B., & Lawrence, W. J. (1933). Genetical studies in cultivated apples. Journal of Genetics, 28(2), 265-296.
12. Einset, J. (1947). Apple breeding enters a new era. Fm Res., N.Y. 13(2), 5.
13. Johansson, E. (1954). “Alfa-68” the first tetraploid apple variety from Alnarp. Sveriges pomologiska förening. Arsskrift, 54, 35-39.
14. Kemmer, E. (1938). The importance of the seedling as a rootstock. Forschungsdienst, 8, 383-386.
15. Nilsson-Ehle, H. (1938). Account of tetraploid apple varieties and their importance in Sweden’s apple cultivation. Sveriges pomologiska förening. Arsskrift, 39, 57-69.
16. Olden, E. J. (1946). Some new high-chromosome types of apples. Sveriges pomologiska förening. Arsskrift, 46, 105-115.
17. Olden, E. J. (1976). A pentaploid apple seedling. Sveriges pomologiska förening. Arsskrift, 47, 76-79.
18. Singh, R., & Wafai, B. A. (1984): Intravarietal polyploidy in the apple (Malus pumila Mill.) cultivar Hazratbali. Euphytica, 33(1), 209-214. doi: 10.1007/BF00022767
Triploidy in apple is the least level of ploidy that gives the greatest effect. A triploid exceeds a diploid nearly in all characteristics. It produces larger and brighter flowers, its fruit have more attractive color and better flavor and it has a crown more convenient for harvesting. A number of authors note its higher resistance to scab. A positive quality of triploid apple varieties is their high and stable yield. Triploid apple varieties have greater autogamy than diploid ones. A negative feature of triploid apple varieties is the strong vigorousness of trees. Large size of trees impedes the mechanical treatments and harvesting. The information on growth power of one-year-old plants of new and mostly distributed apple varieties with different ploidy is given in this paper. One-year-old plants of 42 apple varieties have been studied, including 40 varieties from the breeding program of the All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding. The height of the plants and the leaf area have been measured. The results of our studies confirm that one-year-old plants of diploid varieties are more vigorous but there is no real difference in the leaf area.
2. Buchenkov, I. E., Kavtsevich, V. N., & Bavtuto, G. A. (2005).The creation of the initial material of fruit-berry crops with polyploidy using. In Agroecology. Ecological principles of fruit and vegetable growing (issue 2, pp. 17-20). Gorki. (In Russian).
3. Dutova, L.I. (1985). Cytological and anatomical and morphological characteristic of apple varieties with different levels of ploidy. In Apple breeding for fruit quality improvement (pp. 202-206). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4. Isaev, S.I., & Domrachyeva, I.I. (1976). Cross-pollinating fertility of genetically related apple varieties. In Biology and breeding of apple (pp. 175-190). Moscow: MGU. (In Russian).
5. Isaev, S.I., & Domrachyeva, I.I. (1981). Polyploidy use in apple breeding. In Apple breeding in the USSR (pp. 179-185). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
6. Ponomarenko, V.V. (1985). Polyploidy of Malus Mile species. In Apple breeding for fruit quality improvement (pp. 163-168). Orel: ÂÍÈÈÑÏÊ. (In Russian).
7. Sedov, E.N., Krasova, N.G., Zhdanov, V.V., Dolmatov, E.A., & Mozhar, N.V. (1999). Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253-300). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8. Sedov, E.N., & Serova Z.M. (1984). The development of apple varieties of the intensive type. Orel: Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
9. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., & Zhdanov, V.V. (1985). The condition and prospects of apple breeding on a polyploidy level. In Apple breeding for fruit quality improvement (pp. 169-178). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10. Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., & Serova, Z.M. (2008). Apple breeding on a polyploidy level. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
11. Sedov, E.N., & Sedysheva, G.A. (1984). Karyologic study of apple and pear varieties. In Advanced methods of cultivation and improvement of fruit and berry assortment (pp. 8-14). Tula, Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
12. Tarasenko, S. A., & Doroshkevich, E. I. (1995). Practical work on physiology and biochemistry: practical manual. Grodno: Oblizdat. (In Russian).
13. Shidakov, R. S. (1985).Triploid apple varieties in the foothills of the Northern Caucasus and opportunities of their use in breeding. In Apple breeding for fruit quality improvement (pp. 196-201). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
14. Haskell, G. (1955). Man, polyploidy and fruit tree growing in Britain. Evolution, 291-301.
15. Singh, R., & Wafai, B. A. (1984): Intravarietal polyploidy in the apple (Malus pumila Mill.) cultivar Hazratbali. Euphytica, 33(1), 209-214. doi: 10.1007/BF00022767
The winter hardiness of the above-ground part of quince from Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) breeding program (32A-1-9, 32A-1-24, 32A-126, 32A-1-29, 32A-1-30 and 32A-1-35) was assessed. The results of the assessment are given in this article. The studies were conducted at VNIISPK from 2012 till 2014 by the method of artificial freezing of annual shoots under the controlled conditions by four components of frost resistance [according to the methods “Accelerated estimation of fruit and berry winter hardiness” (Turina, Gogoleva, 1978)]: Component 1 – -30°Ñ, Component 2 – -40°Ñ, Component 3 – -25°Ñ and Component 4 – -35°Ñ. It was determined that under the controlled conditions all of the genotypes got different degrees of bud damaging and partial wood damaging depending on the temperature and conditions of freezing. When quince shoots were kept exposed to frost -30°Ñ (Component 1) the damages were insignificant and varied from 0 to 1 point. Under the lowering of the temperature to -40°Ñ (Component 1) the bud damage was from 4,3 point in 32A-1-9 to 4,9 point in 32A-1-35. When studying the stable frost resistance (Component 3 -25°Ñ) the greatest bud damage was 2,1 point in 32A-1-9 and 32A-1-26 while the least point was in 32A-1-24 – 1,8 point. When quince shoots were kept exposed to frost -35°Ñ (Component 4) significant damages were observed. The damages varied from 4,6 point in 32A-1-29 to 4,1 point in 32A-1-24. In natural conditions under the temperature -31°Ñ -32°Ñ in January-February the damage of mother bushes were insignificant and did not exceed 1 point in 2012–2014 (32A-1-24 and 32A-1-35). Even under the temperature lowering till -39°Ñ the spring examination of the plants did not reveal critical damages for quince. 32A-1-24 and 32A-1-35 were damaged most of all – wood by 3 point, bark and buds by 2 point. In the rest genotypes the wood was damaged by 2 point and there were insignificant damages of bark and buds (1–2 point). Beyond depending on damages, all quince genotypes were quickly restored in spring and vegetated actively.
The results of the study of the influence of soil mixture on biometric parameters of apricot and plum seedlings in containers in greenhouse conditions are presented. The fertilizer of a prolonged action Basacote 6M, fertilizer of a complex action on the basis of glauconite (FCA), sapropel and peat substrate "Bionic" were included in the soil mixture. The introduction of Basacote 6M into the soil mixture and its presence in the peat substrate "Bionic" provided a non-deficit balance of nitrate nitrogen. Growth process significantly increased. The introduction of FCA into the soil mixture increased seedling growth in 2015 though in 2016 oppressed the growth of the seedlings as compared to the control. The introduction of sapropel instead of peat was not advantageous but exceeded the control. At the first half of the growing season in the "Bionic" substrate the plants developed most rapidly, but by September the differences with the other options where Basacote 6M was applied, proved to be slight. The maximum content of chlorophyll in leaves of apricot and plum was noted in 2016 on a background of Basacote 6M application. The significant increase of the apricot leaf area was noted in the options with the introduction of peat substrate "Bionic" and sapropel. For plums the increase of the leaf area compared to the control was not observed.
The application of Basacote 6 M in a dosage of 3–5 g/l of soil mixture increases the seedling prime cost by 2–3 rubles. This reduces the labor costs for fertilizing plants during the vegetation period and commodity number of seedlings is increased by 70–100% as compared to the control. Profitability increased by 30–50%.
The article presents the results of studying of active appearance of overgrown shoots in different sour and sweet cherry scion-rootstock combinations. Five Belarusian sour cherry varieties on clonal rootstock VSL-2 and 13 varieties and promising hybrids of sweet cherry of Belarusian selection on clonal rootstocks VSL-2 and Izmailovskii were studied. Combinations with the rootstock – wild cherry were taken as a standard. The investigation was conducted in the experimental orchard of RUE "Institute for Fruit Growing", Belarus. Complete absence of root shoots and presence of shoots at trunk of trees were revealed in all investigated combinations. The degree of compatibility of scion-rootstock components in sour cherry as well as in sweet cherry had an impact on active appearance of overgrown shoots in grafted trees. In grafted sour cherry trees were found weak appearance of overgrown shoots on clonal rootstock VSL- 2 (0.2–0.9 units per tree) and wild cherries (0.5–1.2 units per tree), which is an indication of sufficiently good compatibility of rootstock VSL-2 with studied sour cherry varieties. Belarusian sweet cherry trees have more activity of appearance of overgrown shoots on VSL-2 (0.7–7.7 units per tree) in comparison with standard rootstock - wild cherry (0.2–0.7 units per tree) and clonal rootstock Izmailovskii (0.2–1.5 units per tree.). Sweet cherry variety Minchanka produced the greatest number of shoots on the trunk of trees on clonal rootstocks VSL-2 – 7.7 units/tree and on Izmailovskii – 1.5 units/tree. The effect of the location of rows of sweet cherry trees of graft-rootstock combinations on frost damage was revealed. The degree of winter damage of sweet cherry varieties was higher at the location of rows from east to west. For some genotypes of a scion the damage reached 2.8–3.0 points on clonal rootstocks (variety Vityas’ on VSL-2 and hybrid 10/97 on Izmailovskii), whereas in the arrangement of rows from north to south – 0.3 points. Direct relationship between the number of shoots formed and the degree of winter damage of grafted trees was not observed.
. (In Russian, English abstract).
From Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding data are presented on the study of biological and economic efficiency systems of apple protection, which include spraying new insecticides, which concerning chemical classes is cited: anthranilamides (Koragen) and oksadizianes (Avant). The experimental site is located in the ñentral part of Central Russian Upland. The climate of the zone is moderately continental, that is relatively warm and moderately humid, characterized by uneven distribution of precipitation by seasons of the year. The records were conducted in 2015 and 2016. After flowering of apple the main pest was the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), developed in 1st-2nd generations. There was 29.3% and 36.2% apples damaged by codling moth on the plot without insecticide treatments during the years of the studies. The biological effectiveness of Koragen 0.2 l/ha was 95.8% in 2015, and of the system, including Koragen 0.2 l/ha, Koragen 0.3 l/ha and Avant 0.4 l/ha, were 100% in 2016. Insecticide Koragen was particularly promising. It did not inferior organophosphorus compounds in effectiveness and had a longer duration of action. Rain virtually did not wash Koragen due to the translaminar action of it. In addition, that insecticide was more environmentally friendly and did not cause outbreaks of the phytophagous mite number.