Dolzhikova, M.A. (2019). DNA-markers in the study of the red currant genome. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 1-15. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10401 (In Russian, English abstract). To achieve significant results in improving the genetic properties of agricultural plants, in particular red currants, it is necessary to maximize the use of genetic resources. Modern molecular genetics methods for studying the genome, localization on the chromosomes (genetic maps) of genes and loci of quantitative and qualitative traits are based on the classical principles of genetics, qualitative phenotypic assessment, crossbreeding, selection of parental pairs, etc. In foreign and national works, studies of the genus Ribes were carried out using DNA markers for identification, for the study of polymorphism and structural organization of the genome. The following types of DNA markers were used to study redcurrants: SSR, RAPD, SNP, and AFLP for studying genetic diversity, genetic identification of genotypes, and for determining the genetic similarity of representatives of the genus Ribes. However, mainly due attention was paid to the studies of blackcurrants, while redcurrants were studied relatively little. For example, for blackcurrants, a genetic map was constructed using SSR and SNP DNA markers; a number of marker assisted selection methods were developed. The genetic map of red currants, to date, as far as we know, has not been published. Hence, DNA marking in the study of genetic diversity and structural organization of the genome of Ribes rubrum L. is an urgent task today.
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Anurova, I.V., Dolzhikova, M.A., Pikunova, A.V., Tolpekina, A.A. & Bogomolova, N.I. (2019). Genetic certification of raspberries (Rubus L.). Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 16-25. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10402 (In Russian, English abstract). Raspberry (Rubus L.) is one of the most common berry crops in horticulture. For the last five years, 20 new raspberry varieties have been included in the State Register of Selection Achievements of the Russian Federation. Currently, to identify raspberry varieties quantitative and qualitative traits are used which are detected visually. One of the main disadvantages of such traits is the significant dependence on growing conditions. Thus, the task of identification and certification of existing and new varieties are very relevant. Biotechnology has led to a fundamental shift in the detection and monitoring of genetic variation in plant breeding and genetic researches. A more effective and promising system for marking breeding achievements is the genetic certification of the variety based on DNA-markers. SSR analysis of raspberry is widely used in foreign studies, and very is limited in Russian ones. The purpose of these studies was to create genetic passports of raspberry varieties based on the polymorphism of microsatellite loci. Nine raspberry samples (i.e. Cascade Delight, Zhar-Ptitsa, Octaria, Lyachka, Balsam, Zhuravlik, Sputnitsa, Gerakl and Meteor) of the VNIISPK collection were tested in 11 SSR loci. From two to five fragments were amplified per locus. Within the samples analyzed, for 5 out of 9 varieties unique profiles have been identified. Identical profiles were obtained for Zhuravlik and Gerakl, as well as Sputnitsa and Meteor, but those profiles differ from profiles of others varieties involved in the study.
1.Bogomolova, N.I., & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2016). An adaption potential of red raspberry to damaging winter factors in the field and controlled conditions of central Russia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 40-52. Retrieved from: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/46.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
2.Dolzhikova, M.A., Pikunova, A.V., Sedov, E.N., & Serova, Z.M. (2018). DNA genotyping of the hybrid fund of apple VNIISPK for the presence of VFs DNA marker for resistance to scab. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 27-32. (In Russian, English abstract). https://doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10304
3.Kagan, D.I., Shestibrstov, K.A., Lebedev, V.G., Azarova, A.B., Filippov, M.S., Besov, S.A., Ivanovskaya, S.I., Kovalevich, O.A., & Barsukova, M.M. (2014). Certification of raspberry and blackberry varieties and the study of their phylogenetic relationships using RAPD analysis. In Biotechnological methods in conservation of biodiversity and plant breeding: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 101-104). Minsk: Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Retrieved from: http://microklon.ru/uploads/_pages/441/proceedings-cbg.biotech-2014_.pdf#page=102
4.Kalaev, V.N., Zemlyanukhina, O.A., Karpechenko, I.Y., Karpechenko, K.A., Kondratieva, A.M., & Veprintsev, V.N. (2012). Use of the methods of molecular genetic analysis for study of DNA polymorphism of Phododendron plants for the aim of their certification. Fundamental research, 6(2), 323-328. Retrieved from http://www.fundamental-research.ru/ru/article/view?id=29984. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Kazlouskaya, Z.A., Leanovich, I.S., Hashenka, T.A., & Kandratsenak, Yu.G. (2017). Molecular-genetic passportization of national apple collection in Belarus. Works of the State Nikità Botanical Gardens, 144(1), 134-138. Retrieved from http://scbook.nbgnscpro.com/download/144-1/30_144_1-2017.pdf (In Russian, English abstract)
6.Lebedev, V.G., (2015). Russian Federation Patent ¹ 2015105268. A method for identifying raspberry varieties based on RAPD markers. Moscow: Federal Institute of Industrial Property. (In Russian).
7.Lebedev, V.G., Kagan, D.I., & Vidyagina, E.O. (2017). Russian Federation Patent ¹ 2017112958. Method of genetic certification of raspberry selection achievements based on RAPD markers. Moscow: Federal Institute of Industrial Property. (In Russian).
8.Lebedev, V.G., Subbotina, N.Ì., Kirkach, V.V., Vidjagina, Å.Î., Pozdnyakov, I.À., & Shestibratov, Ê.À. (2018). Analysis of microsatellite loci as first stage of marker-assisted selection of raspberry and strawberry. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops 5(1), 65-68. Retrieved from https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/vniispk-storage/ckeditor_assets/attachments/330/SSSK._2018._T.5__¹1.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
9.Pikunova, A.V., Knyazev, S.D., Sedov, E.N., & Bogomolova, N.I. (2013). Genotyping of the microsatellite loci of apple, raspberry and black currant from the VNIISPK collection. In Biotechnology in crop, livestock and veterinary science: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 44-46). Moscow: VNIISB. (In Russian)
10.Tagimanova, D.S., Alzhanova, A., Khapilina, O.N., & Kalendar, R.N. (2014). Use IRAP and iPBS molecular markers for genetic analysis of wheat varieties. Eurasian Journal of Applied Biotechnology (4), 30-34. https://doi.org/10.11134/btp.4.2014.4 (In Russian, English abstract).
11.Ushakova, Y.V. (2015). Use of DNA-marking technologies in selection and genetic studies of Apple trees (Bio. Sci. Cand. Thesis). SKZNIISiV, Krasnodar, Russia. Retrieved from https://kubsau.ru/upload/iblock/987/987563bc87fde8e7fdb163129ba1d1d0.pdf (In Russian).
12.Bushakra, J.M., Krieger, C., Deng, D., Stephens, M.J., Allan, A.C., Storey, R., Symonds, V.V., Stevenson, D., McGhie, T., Chagné, D., Buck, E.J., & Gardiner, S.E. (2013). QTL involved in the modification of cyanidin compounds in black and red raspberry fruit. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 126(3), 847–865. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-2022-4
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15.Graham, J., Smith, K., MacKenzie, K., Jorgenson, L., Hackett, C., & Powell, W. (2004). The construction of a genetic linkage map of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus subsp idaeus) based on AFLPs, genomic-SSR and EST-SSR markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 109, 740–749. https://doi.org/10,1007 / s00122-004-1687-8
Ward, J. A., Bhangoo, J., Fernández-Fernández, F., Moore, P., Swanson, J. D., Viola, R., Velasco, R., Bassil, N., Weber, C.A., & Sargent, D. J. (2013). Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeususing genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation. BMC genomics, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-2.
Zubkova, M.A., Ulitskaya, O.N. & Borodkina, A.G. (2019). Study of microsporogenesis features in tetraploid of apple ¹ 141. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 26-32. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10403 (In Russian, English abstract). One of the priority areas of selection is the polyploid method. Its use will create a large hybrid fund of apple triploids with high economically valuable traits: adaptability, high yield and marketability of fruit, regular fruiting, and resistance to main diseases and pests. The ongoing breeding work on intervalent crosses led to the production of tetraploids. To determine their breeding significance, it is necessary to study the state of the generative sphere, which, in turn, will allow us to determine the necessary volume of crosses in order to predict the expected results. Microsporogenesis was studied in the apple tetraploid ¹ 141 [25-37-45 (Orlovskaya Girlianda × Wealthy tetraploid) × Afrodita]. The presence of disturbances in the formation of microspores was noted. The following types of abnormalities were noted: the movement of groups of chromosomes and individual chromosomes to the poles of the fission spindle, lag of chromosomes, ejections of individual chromosomes into the cytoplasm of the microsporocyte, displacement and ejections, lag and ejections, bridges between anaphase groups, the presence of supernumerary fission spindles, the presence of micronuclei. At the stage of tetrads, polyads (pentads, hexads) are formed. Violations are observed at all stages of division and range from 10.81 to 25.41%, which indicates the relative correctness of the course of meiosis. Therefore, this leads to the formation of a sufficiently high amount of visually normal diploid pollen. The studied pollen fertility was 63.25%. Based on the data obtained, the tetraploid form of apple tetraploid ¹ 141 (4x) can be recommended for use in breeding studies at the polyploid level as a paternal component in heteroploid crosses.
1.Buchenkov, I.E., Kavtsevich, V.N., & Bavtuto, G.A. (2005). The creation of the initial material of fruit-berry crops with polyploidy using. In Agroecology. Ecological principles of fruit and vegetable growing (Vol. 2, pp 17-20). Gorki. (In Russian).
2.Gorbacheva, N.G., & Klimenko, M.A. (2019). Cytological control of hybrid seedlings and origin genotypes of apple in breeding with polyploidy using. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 25-31. https://doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10103 (In Russian, English abstract)
3.Pausheva, Z. P. (1980). Practicum on plant Cytology. (In Russian).
4.Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Krasova, N.G., Serova, Z.M., & Yanchuk, T.V. (2017). Advantages and prospects of new triploid apple varieties for production. Horticulture and viticulture, 2, 24-30. https://doi.org/10.18454/VSTISP.2017.2.5441. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Sedov, E.N. (2017). Economical and biological characteristics of fundamentally new summer triploid apple varieties having immunity to scab. Bulletin of Michurinsk state agrarian university, 3, 27-30. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Serova, Z.M., & Yanchuk, T.V. (2017). Scab immune, triploid and columnar apple varieties bred at ARRIFCB and breeding prospects. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 48(1), 226–231. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Serova, Z.M., & Yanchuk, T.V. (2018). Intervalent crossing is the main way to create triploid apple varieties. Russian agricultural science, 3, 6-10. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., & Serova, Z.M. (2008). Apple breeding on a polyploidy level. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9.Sedysheva, G.A., Sedov, E.N., Gorbacheva, N.G., Serova, Z.M., & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2013). A new donor of selectively significant features for the creation of triploid, adaptive, high-quality apple varieties. Horticulture and viticulture, 1, 13-18. (In Russian, English abstract).
10.Sedysheva, G.A., Sedov, E.N., Gorbacheva, N.G., Serova, Z.M., & Melnik, S.A. (2017). The efficiency of heteroploid crossings in Malus Mill. and cytological control in the development of triploid varieties. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 6-11. https://doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2017- 00002 (In Russian, English abstract).
11. Topilskaya, L.A., Luchnikova, S.V., & Chuvashina, N.P. (1975). Study of currant somatic and meiotic chromosomes on acetohematoxylin squash preparations. Bulleten I.V. Michurin CGL, 22, 58-61. (In Russian).
Ozherelieva, Z.E., Krasova, N.G. & Galasheva ,A.M. (2019). Study of apple winter hardiness under controlled conditions. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 33-41. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10404 (In Russian, English abstract). The results of the study of the basic components of apple winter hardiness by the artificial freezing method are given. The studies were carried out on the basis of the laboratory of physiology of fruit plant resistance at the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) in 2016—2018. Apple cultivars of the Institute breeding grown on the semi-dwarf rootstock 54-118 were studied. Hardening of annual shoots of apple cultivars and modeling of the main components of winter hardiness were conducted in the climatic chamber “Espec” PSL-2KPH (Japan). The purpose of the research was to study the basic components of apple winter hardiness under the controlled conditions. As a result of the study of the basic winter hardiness components, the influence of the hardening on the increase of frost resistance of apple buds in early winter (r = 0.80) was determined. In the hardened state, the cultivars showed frost resistance of the buds and tissues of annual shoots with reversible damage at -38°C in the middle of winter. Lowering the temperature to -40°C in January increased damage to the buds and wood in the studied cultivars, while the bark was characterized by greater frost resistance. According to the degree of damage to the bark in January with a decrease in temperature to -40°C the cultivars Rozhdestvenskoye, Svezhest and Sinap Orlovsky were at the level of the control. During the thaws +3 and +5°C the most cultivars maintained their hardened state and withstood a temperature drop to -25°C in February with reversible damage (no more than 2.0 points). All of the studied apple cultivars were able to restore quickly the level of frost resistance during thaws +3 and +5°C with return frost -30°C at the end of winter. The winter hardy apple cultivar Rozhdestvenskoye was allocated as a result of the studies.
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4.Leonchenko, V.G., Evseeva, R.P., Zhbanova, E.V., & Cherenkova, T.A. (2007). The preliminary selection of promising fruit genotypes for ecological resistance and biochemical value of fruit. Michurinsk: VNIIS. (In Russian).
5.Ozherelieva, Z.E., Krasova, N.G., & Galasheva, A.M. (2013). Study of apple variety-rootstock combinations according to the winter hardiness components. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo - Contemporary Horticulture, 4, 1-10. Retrieved from: http://journal-vniispk.ru/pdf/2013/4/1.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Ozherelieva, Z.E., & Sedov, E.N. (2015). Winter hardiness of apple genotypes of different ploidy of VNIISPK breeding // Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops. Orel: VNIISPK, 2, 145-147. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Tumanov, I.I. (1979). Physiology of hardening and frost resistance of plants. Moscow: Nauka, 1979. (In Russian).
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9.Tyurina, M.M., Gogoleva, G.A., Efimova, N.V., Goloulina, L.K., Morozova, N.G., Echedi, I.I., Volkov, F.A., Arsentiev, A.P. & Matyash, N.A. (2002). The estimation of fruit and berry crop resistance to the stressors of a cold year period in the field and controlled conditions: Methodical instructions. Moscow: VSTISP. (In Russian).
10.Tyurina, M.M., Makarova, Yu.A., & Kudryavetz., R.P. (2001). Productivity, fruiting periodicity and frost resistance of apple under the influence of yield load. Agricultural biology, 36(3), 84-90. (In Russianá English abstract).
11.Ozherelieva, Z.E., Prudnikov, P.S., & Bogomolova, N.I. (2016). Frost hardiness of introduced Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) genotypes in Central Russia. Proceedings of Latvian Academy of sciences. Section B, 70(2), 88-95. https://doi.org/10.1515/prolas-2016-0014
12.Ozherelieva, Z., & Sedov, E. (2017). Low temperature tolerance of apple cultivars of different ploidy at different times of the winter. Proceedings of Latvian Academy of sciences. Section B. 71(3), 127-131. https://doi.org/10.1515/prolas-2017-0022
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Kornilov, B.B., Dolmatov, E.A. & Khrykina, T.A. (2019). Aesthetic characteristics of some ornamental apple genotypes of the VNIISPK gene pool and a model of the ideal variety of this culture for Central Russia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 42-56. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10405 (In Russian, English abstract). The aim of the study was to identify in the VNIISPK gene pool and in the expedition surveys of the Orel region adapted to the conditions of the region apple genotypes with outstanding aesthetic characteristics, and to create a model of the ideal variety of this culture for Central Russia. The results of the study of the decorativeness of 22 apple genotypes are given: ‘Kuldzhinka’, ‘Yagodnaya Plakuchaya’, ‘Pionerochka’, ‘Royalty’, ‘Valuta’, ‘Orlovskaya Plakuchaya’, ‘Yarkaya’; rootstock and selection accessions – 57-366, 54-118, 3-4-98, 62-396, 3-3-72, V-1, 30-1-29, 30-1-30,30-1-41, 30-1-60, 30-1-87, 30-1-94, 30-1-95, 30-1-100 and N-1. The studies were carried out at VNIISPK in 2012-2014 using the method of coding decorative features of apple trees developed earlier by Nigmatyanova S.E. in the VNIISPK modification. Seven studied genotypes: N-1, ‘Royalty’, 54-118, ‘Pionerochka’, 3-4-98, 3-3-72 and ‘Yarkaya’ were decorative to the greatest extent (by total ponts) and got from 24 to 30 points. The average degree of decorativeness (from 20 to 23 points) was characteristic for 12 genotypes: 30-1-29, 30-1-30, 30-1-60, 30-1-87, 30-1-94, 30-1-95, 30-1-100, ‘Yagodnaya Plakuchaya’, ‘Kuldzhinka’, ‘Valuta’, 57-366 and 62-396. Three genotypes V-1, 30-1-41 and ‘Orlovskaya Plakuchaya’ had the least number of points when estimating their decorativeness. N-1, 3-4-98 and ‘Yarkaya’ have spherical habit of the crown. 3-4-98 and 3-3-72 are characterized by the aroma of flowers similar to jasmine. Such genotypes as 3-4-98, 3-3-72, ‘Kuldzhinka’, ‘Pionerochka’, 62-396, 57-366 and ‘Yarkaya’ have large size of flowers. ‘Pionerochka’, 3-4-98, 3-3-72, N-1 and ‘Yarkaya’ have particularly abundance of fruiting. The greatest visual expressiveness is characteristic for the color of fruits of such genotypes as 3-4-98, 3-3-72, ‘Pionerochka’, N-1 and ‘Yarkaya’. The authors suggest a model of an ideal ornamental apple cultivar for Central Russia, which can be used as a reference point for further selection of this crop.
1.Anonymous (2016).The state register of breeding achievements of the Russian Federation allowed to use. Plant Varieties. (pp 350). Moscow. (In Russian).
2.Dubovitskaya, O.Y., & Zolotareva, E.V. (2010). Flowering trees and shurbs for landscaping of low-rise building. Vestnik OrelGAU, 2, 72-77(In Russian, English abstract).
3.Eremin, G.V., & Gasanov, A.S (2012). New varieties of ornamental stone fruit plants. Chelyabinsk: HPO "Sad y ogorod": Dom pechati, (In Russian).
4.Isachkin, A.V. (2014). On the state of ornamental crops in Russia. Retrieved from: https://www.ruspitomniki.ru/article/selekciya-i-introdukciya-rastenij.html/id/207.
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7.Kornilov, B.B., & Dolmatov, E.A. (2016a). Ornamental apple and pear and a perfect cultivar model of these crops for the temperate zone of Russia. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 3(1), 71-74. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Kornilov B.B., & Dolmatov E.A. (2016b): The estimation of aesthetic qualities of ornamental apple and pear genotypes of VNIISPK gene pool. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 92-99. Retrieved from: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/1/14.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
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12.Solomatin, N.M., Solomatina, E.A., & Ivanova, E.V. (2012). Apple breeding for ornamental characteristics in the Central-Chernozem zone. Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin, 21(21–1), 68-72. (In Russian).
Ozherelieva, Z.E. & Lyakhova, A.V. (2019). Study of cherry frost hardiness during winter thaw by artificial freezing. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 57-64. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10406 (In Russian, English abstract). The studies were carried out in the laboratory of physiology of fruit plant resistance at VNIISPK in 2017—2018. Five cherry cultivars growing in the orchard on new clone rootstocks of the Institute breeding were studied. The orchard was planted in 2011. Spacing scheme – 5×2 m. Row spacing and tree trunk zone was a natural grassing. For artificial freezing in early December the material was prepared for III and IV components of winter hardiness. 10 perennial branches of each scion-rootstock combinations were cut, 5 branches for each component. The purpose of the research was to study the frost resistance of scion-rootstock combinations of cherries during winter thaws by artificial freezing. The study of the frost hardiness during thaws was carried out in the climatic chamber “Espec” PSL-2KPH. As a result of the artificial freezing, the studied scion-rootstock combinations of cherries were characterized by frost hardiness of vegetative buds and tissues of annual shoots in the period of a three-day winter thaw +2°C with a sharp decrease in temperature -25°C. At the same time, the frost hardiness of generative buds was reduced in cherry cultivars grafted on clone rootstocks. ‘Turgenevka’ on the rootstocks 74326 and 82987, ‘Novella’ on ‘Rubin’ and on 82987 as well as ‘Rovesnitza’ on ‘Rubin’ showed frost hardiness of generative buds. After a three-day thaw +2°C and re-hardening with a subsequent decrease in temperature to -30°C in March (winter hardiness component IV), the main part of the studied scion-rootstock combinations of cherries were characterized by frost hardiness of vegetative buds, bark and wood of annual shoots. At the same time, they were found to have weak frost resistance of generative buds.
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3.Dubrovskaya, O.Yu. (2015). Biochemical fruit composition of plum cultivars and allocation of the best genotypes for breeding use and processing (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Michurinsk, Russia. (In Russian).
5.Kushlak, A.V. (2013). Production and biological characteristic of new cultivar-rootstock combinations of apples, pears, cherries and their importance for the Central Chernozem Region. (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Michurinsk, Russia. (In Russian).
6.Morozova, N.G., Kartashova, O.N., & Kharin, A.E. (2006). Winter hardiness of cherries and cherries in the Moscow region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 16, 177-179. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Morozova, N.G., & Simonov, V.S. (2019). New varienties stone fruits derived in FGBNU VSTISP. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 6 (2), 79-83. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Osipov, G.E. (2011). Biological features of plums and breeding solution to the problem of the assortment of the Middle Volga region. (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Michurinsk, Russia. (In Russian).
9.Ryabushkin, Yu.B. (2002). Promising clone rootstocks of fruit crops for the Volga region. Breeding and seed production, 2, 9-12. (In Russian, English abstract).
10.Tyurina, M.M., Gogoleva, G.A., Efimova, N.V., Goloulina, L.K., Morozova, N.G., Echedi, I.I., Volkov, F.A., Arsentiev, A.P., & Matyash, N.A. (2002). The estimation of fruit and berry crop resistance to the stressors of a cold year period in the field and controlled conditions: Methodical instructions. Moscow: VSTISP. (In Russian).
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Rahmetova, T.P. (2019). Biochemical composition of cherry fruit. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 65-75. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10407 (In Russian, English abstract). A review of reports on cherry production in the world is given. The main cherry producing countries for 2017 are marked according to the data of FAOSTAT. Information on the use of cherries in the food industry is presented. The main regions of cultivation of this culture in Russia are marked. Much attention is paid to the biochemical composition of fruits: its main components are listed. A special role of phenolic compounds is highlighted, one of the sources of which is cherry. Data on the content of chemicals in the fruits of cherries grown in different regions of Russia and abroad are summarized. The maximal accumulation of ascorbic acid in cherry fruits was noted in the north-west region of Russia – up to 30.0 mg/100 g; in the Orenburg region – up to 28.0 mg/100 g; in the Altay territory – up to 26 mg/100 g; in Poland – up to 22.2 mg/100 g. The least content of organic acids was in cherry fruits grown in the Altay territory – 0.20…0.45%, Latvia – 0.3…1.0% and in China – 0.17…0.18%. The lower Volga region (to 14.1%), Orel (to 14.3%), Crimea (to 21.0%), Latvia (15.4%, Spain (12.4% and Poland (to 16.3%) were distinguished by the content of sugars. The greatest number of phenolic substances in fruits was noted in cherries grown in the north-west region of Russia – up to 2500 mg/100 g and in Orel – up to 1209.4 mg/100 g. Having carried out the literary analysis it is possible to draw a conclusion that cherry occupies one of the leading positions (14th place) from 50 products on the greatest content of antioxidants per a portion, surpassing such known leaders as red wine, dried plums, dark chocolate and orange juice.
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Tikhonova, Î.À. (2019). Black currant varieties of VNIISPK breeding in the North-West of Russia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 76-91. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10408 (In Russian, English abstract). The article presents the results of the study of biological and economic traits and the level of adaptability of black currant varieties of VNIISPK breeding. Our investigations were carried out at Pushkin and Pavlovsk laboratories of VIR in 2010—2017 years. The study of the adaptibility and biology of flowering and productiveness of varieties was carried out in accordance with the methodological guidelines (Orel, 1999). The content of nutrient and biologically active substances in black currant berries was carried in 2010—2012 in the laboratory of biochemistry and molecular biology of the N. I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resourses (VIR) in accordance with the methodological guidelines (Ermakov et al., 1987). The study showed that the varieties of VNIISPK breeding have a high adaptive potential and are able to realize their high potential possibility in the North-West of Russia. The cultivars with maximum expression of separate valuable economic features were released: high ability to form shoots – Kipiana, Chudnoe mgnovenie, Muravushka, Monisto, Orlovskaya serenada, Slastena; a lot of racemes per one node – Ocharovanie, Muravushka; large-fruit size – Slastena, Zaglyadenie, Ocharovanie, Orlovskii vals, Ekzotika, 2780-20-33; high level of self-fertility – Arapka, Orlovskii vals, Chudnoe mgnovenie, Dachnitsa, Gratsiya, Azhurnaya, Orlovskaya serenada; high level of accumulation of anthocyanins – Orloviya, Ocharovanie, Orlovskii vals, Gratsia; high content of P-active substances – Orloviya. Varieties Orlovskii vals, Orlovskaya serenada, Gratsiya are characterized of complex combination of all components productivity. All studied varieties of VNIISPK breeding are characterized of high resistance to American powdery mildew in the North-West of Russia
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12.Sazonov, F.F., & Podgaetskii, M.A. (2011). The productivity potential of the original forms and hybrids of blackcurrant. Vestnik OrelGAU, 3, 32-35. (In Russian, English abstract).
13.Tikhonova, O.A. (2015). Self-fertility of black currant cultivars. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 42-60. Retrieved from: http://journal-vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/1/7.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
14.Tikhonova, O.A., Shelenga, T.V., & Streltsina, S.A. (2015). Biochemical composition of black currant berries in the Russian North–West.In Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops (pp. 203-206). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
15.Tikhonova, O.A. (2016). Elements of the black currant productivity component in the environments of the russian north-west. Proceedings on applied botany, genetics and breeding, 177(3), 61-73. https://doi.org/10.30901/2227-8834-2016-3-61-73 (In Russian, English abstract).
16.Tikhonova, O.A. (2018). Black currant in the conditions of the Russian North-West. In Current trends in the sustainable development of berry growing in Russia (currants, gooseberries) (pp. 268-286). Michurinsk. https://doi.org/10.17513/np.329 (In Russian, English abstract).
17.Shirko, T.S., Radyuk, A.F, Bachilo, A.I, Maximenko, N.G. (1993). Quality of black currant cultivars of the BNIIP collection. Fruitgrowing, 8, 158-180 (in Russian).
18.Shirko, T.S., & Yaroshevich, I.V. (1991). Biochemical parameters and quality of fruits. Minsk: Navuka i tekhnika. (In Russian).
19.Yanchuk, T.V. (2013). Assessment of black currant gene pool for ascorbic acid and phenolic contents in berries. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 41-50. Retrieved from: http://journal-vniispk.ru/pdf/2013/4/5.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
20.Keep, E. (1981). Black currant and gooseberry. In Breeding of fruit culture (pp. 274–370). Moscow: Kolos.
21.Kruger, E., Dietrich, H., Hey, M., & Patz, C.-Det. (2011). Effects of cultivar, yield, berry weight, temperature and ripening stage on bioactive compounds of black currants. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 84, 40-46.
22.Ochmian, I., Dobrowolska, A., & Chelpinski, P. (2014). Physical parametrs and Chemical composition of fourteen blackcurrant cultivars (Ribes nigrum L.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 42(1), 160-167. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha4219103
23.Viskelis, P., Bobinaite, R., Rubinskiene, M., Sasnauskas, A., & Lanauskas, J. (2012). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of small fruits. In Alejandro Isabel Luna Maldonado (Ed.), Horticulture (pp.75-102). Croatia: In Tech.
Bogomolova, N.I. (2019). Elite red raspberry accessions from VNIISPK gene pool. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 92-101. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10409 (In Russian, English abstract). The studies were carried out in the Orel region on the experimental plot of berry breeding and cultivar investigation at VNIISPK in 2016—2018. Five elite raspberry accessions developed as from open pollination and purposeful crossings were studied. The zoned cultivar Brigantina was used as a standard one. The estimation of raspberry genotypes was conducted according to the conventional methods of breeding and cultivar study. New elite raspberry accessions have been released that meet the models of a modern ideal cultivar in terms of up-to-date requirements for berry crop cultivars. The main requirements for technological raspberry cultivars have been analyzed. It has been revealed that elite raspberry accessions are superior to cultivated and zoned cultivars as by the weight of berries, tasting and commercial qualities, as well as have an early and medium dates of fruiting. A complete morphological description of the selected elite forms was carried out. The description also presents a number of key economic and valuable indicators, including the weight of the berries, the load of fruit-bearing shoots with fruit branches (laterals) and the number of berries in one lateral, as well as the score of tasting fresh berries and resistance of the plants to the main leaf and stem spots. The relative resistance of wood to damaging factors of the winter period was studied. The aim of the studies was to create and release red raspberry genotypes from the genetic collection that combine a high level of the environmental adaptability of the plants and consistently high productivity. The main parameters were the level of winter hardiness, terms of passage of phenological phases, resistance to major diseases, the biochemical composition of fresh berries and plant productivity.
1.Vigorov, L.I. (1976). Garden of medicinal crops. Sverdlovsk: Medium Ural Publishing house. (In Russian).
2.Kazakov, I.V., Gruner, L.A., & Kichina, V.V. (1999). Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 374–395). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Kazakov, I.V. (2001). Raspberry. Blackberry. Moscow: Folio. (In Russian).
4.Kazakov, I.V. (1989). Raspberry breeding in middle RSFSR. Tula: Priokskoye Publ. House. (In Russian).
5.Kazakov, I.V., Aitzhanova, S.D., Evdokimenko, S.N., Sazonov, F.F., Kulagina, V.L., & Andronova, N.V. (2016). Berry crops in the Central region of Russia. Moscow: All-Russian Horticultural Institute for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Kichina, V.V. (2005). Large-fruited raspberries of Russia. Moscow. (In Russian).
7.Kichina V.V., Kazakov I.V., Gruner L.A. (1995): Raspberry and blackberry breeding. Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut breeding. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel, VNIISPK: 368-386. (In Russian).
8.Kulikov, I.M. (2010). Innovational opportunities of the increase in production of raspberries in Russia. Horticulture and viticulture, 6, 14-112. (In Russian, English abstract).
9.Sharafutdinova, E.I., & Danilova, A.A. (2009). Raspberry breeding prospects. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 22, 2. 377-380. (In Russian, English abstract).
Lupin, M.V. & Bogomolova, N.I.(2019). Actual directions of raspberry breeding, russian and world achievements. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 102-112. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10410 (In Russian, English abstract). The survey of the achievements of domestic and foreign researchers on breeding of red raspberries (R. idaeus L.) is given in this article. Information on raspberry production and occupied areas round the world including Russia is presented. The taxonomy of the main species which have significance in breeding is considered. Particular attention is paid to priority breeding programs on the improvement of raspberry assortment in Russia and creation of high-yielding and adaptive cultivars having high marketable and consumer qualities of berries with the following establishment of highly profitable plantations. The foreign experience of breeding in this direction is necessary to identify the best cultivars of red raspberries that meet modern requirements of industry and consumer market for their introduction in Russia and further use in breeding as sources and donors of economically valuable traits. The replenishment, study and use of genetic diversity with given biological parameters will allow to construct the variety of the future. For the last 10 years (2009—2019) 31 raspberry cultivars have been included in the State Register of breeding achievements. This confirms that raspberry is an urgent and claiming culture. The appearance of a new type of plants – ever-bearing cultivars, contributes to the improvement of cultivation technology and increase of profitability of raspberry production. At the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK, Orel) the variety investigation of raspberries has been started since 1978 under the guidance of the doctor of agricultural sciences T.P. Ogoltsova. Since 1995 this work was carried out under the guidance of the candidate of agricultural sciences L.A. Gruner. Since 1999 the breeding work has been continued by the candidate of agricultural sciences N.I. Bogomolova. At present, the genetic collection of the VNIISPK has 40 cultivars, 160 selected seedlings and 19 elite seedlins of raspberries. The actual direction of selection is obtaining high-yielding and adaptive varieties to biotic and abiotic environmental factors with the possibility of mechanized harvesting of fruits, with high taste and commercial qualities of berries.
1.Trunow, Yu.V. (2009). Approbation signs of planting material of berry crops: methodical manual Voronezh: Kvarta. (In Russian).
2.Bayanova, A.V. (1988). The results of raspberry variety investigation at Orel Fruit-Berry Experimental Station. In Assortment improvement and methods of cultivation of fruit and berry crops (pp. 91-96). Tula: Priokskoye Publ. House. (In Russian).
3.Gruner, L.A. (2014). Blackberries. In E.N. Sedov & L.A. Gruner (Eds.), Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops (vol. 5, pp. 300-308). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4.Anonymous (2018). State Register of breeding achievements admitted for use (pp. 295-297) Moscow. (In Russian).
5.Evdokimenko, S.N. (2016). Breeding potential of the genus Rubus L. Pomiculture & Small Fruits Culture in Russia, 46, 101-104. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Evdokimenko, S.N., Sazonov, F.F., & Andronova, N.V. (2017) New varieties of small fruit crops for the Central Region of Russia. Horticulture and viticulture. 1, 31-38. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Isaikina, L.D. (1979) Sources of raspberry breeding for immunity and resistance to main diseases and pests: (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Moscow. (In Russian).
9.Kazakov, I.V. (1989). Raspberry breeding in middle RSFSR. Tula: Priokskoye Publ. House. (In Russian).
10.Kazakov, I.V., Aitzhanova, S.D., Evdokimenko, S.N., Sazonov, F.F., Kulagina, V.L., & Andronova, N.V. (2016). Berry crops in the Central region of Russia. Moscow: VSTISP. (In Russian, English abstract).
11.Kichina, V.V. (2005). Large-fruited raspberries of Russia. Moscow. (In Russian).
12.Kichina, V.V., Kazakov, I.V., & Gruner, L.A. (1995): Raspberry and blackberry breeding. In E.N. Sedov (Ed.) Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding (pp 368-386). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
13.Kulikov, I.M. (2010). Innovational opportunities to increase raspberry production in Russia Horticulture & viticulture, 6, 14-16. (In Russian, English abstract).
14.Sharafutdinova, E. I., & Danilova, A.A. (2009). Perspectives of raspberry breeding. Pomiculture & Small Fruits Culture in Russia, 22(2), 377-380. (In Russian, English abstract).
15.Ballington, J.R. (2016). The history of blackberry and raspberry breeding in the southern USA. Acta Hortic. 1133, 13-22. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1133.3
16.Danek, J., & Krol, K. (2008). Recent situation in raspberry production in Poland. Acta Hortic. 777, 289-292. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.777.43
17.Dale, A., Moore, P.P., McNicol, R.J., Sjulin, T.M., & Burmistrov, L.A. (1993). Genetic Diversity of Red Raspberry Varieties throughout the-World. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 118(1), 119-129. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.118.1.119
18.Finn, C.E., Kempler, C. and Moore, P.P. (2008). Raspberry cultivars: what’s new? What´s succeeding? Where are breeding programs headed?. Acta Hortic. 777, 33-40. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.777.1
19.Finn, C.E. (2006). Caneberry Breeders in North America. HortScience, 41(1), 22-24. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.41.1.22
32.Moore, P.P., Hoashi-Erhardt, W., Finn, C.E., Martin, R.R., & Dossett, M. (2015). "Cascade Harvest" Red Raspberry. HortScience, 50(4), 624-627. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.4.624
33.Orzel, A., Simlat, M., & Danek, J. (2016). Directions in raspberry and blackberry breeding program conducted in NIWA Berry Breeding Ltd., Brzezna, Poland. Acta Hortic. 1133, 29-34. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1133.5
34.Sasnauskas, A., Buskiene, L., Siksnianas, T., & Rubinskiene, M. (2012). Productivity and fruit quality of primocane raspberry cultivars and selections. Acta Hortic. 946, 89-93. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.946.11
35.Stephens, M., Enfield, J.R., & Hall, H.K. (2012). ‘Wakefield’ Red Raspberry. HortScience, 47(10), 1556-1558. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.47.10.1556
36.Anonymous (2018). State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine in 2018 The ministry of agrarian policy and food. Kyiv.
Matsneva, O.V. & Tashmatova, L.V. (2019). Clonal micro-propagation of strawberries is a promising method of modern nursery practice (review). Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 113-119. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10411 (In Russian, English abstract). The main issues related to the feasibility of using the method of clonal propagation of strawberries in the system of production of planting material of fruit and berry crops are considered in this article. Technological aspects of micro-propagation stages and peculiarities of strawberry explant cultivation in vitro are covered in the paper. Problems and prospects of clonal strawberry propagation are discussed. Some results of the work of the biotechnology laboratory at VNIISPK are given. Intensification of horticulture involves the development of new effective technologies and their inclusion in the system of production of healthy planting material. The method of clonal micro-propagation most fully realizes the potential of the plant organism for reproduction. A high multiplication factor is an important point. For successful reproduction it is necessary to take into account the reaction of the genotype, the influence of physiological, hormonal and physical factors. Clonal micro-propagation can be divided into four main stages: introduction to culture, micro-propagation itself, rooting and adaptation. Strawberries became the first culture for which the technology of plant regeneration in the culture of isolated apexes was developed. The nutrient medium Murashige-Skoog (1962) is more often used for strawberry introduction with the addition of 6-BAP 0.5mg/l. The nutrient media with the mineral base according to Anderson, Ly de Fossard and Murashige-Skoog provide the highest multiplication factor. At the stage of strawberry rhizogenesis, the most commonly used auxins are IMC (indolyl butyric acid) at a concentration of 0.5...1.0 mg/l and IUC (indolylacetic acid) at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l. For rooting, the Murashige-Skoog medium with a full content of iron chelate and vitamins is used. The alternation of the nutrient media with the mineral base according to Boxus and Murashige-Skoog allows to increase the yield of rooted plants in the first phase by 25% and to increase the proportion of adapted plants to non-sterile conditions by 5%.
1.Atroshchenko, G.P., Kostitsyn, V.V., & Nedelyuev, A.L. (2001). Recommendations for production of healthy planting material of strawberry. Saint-Petersburg: Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University. (In Russian).
2.Muratova, S.A., Shornikov, D.G., & Yankovskaya, M.B. (2008). Biotechnical methods of berry crop propagation. In Scientific and practical achievements and innovative ways of development of horticulture production to improve the structure of nutrition and human health (pp. 63-69). Michurinsk: Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation.
3.Vysotskiy, V.A. (2016). The appearance of non true-type forms during long term in vitro cultivation of small fruit plants. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 45, 54-57. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Golovin, S.E. (2001). Basics of ensuring phytosanitary quality of certified planting material. In Industrial production of improved planting material of fruit, berry and flower-ornamental crops: Proc.sci. Conf. (pp 52-53). Moscow: VSTISP. (In Russian).
5.Kulikov, I.M. (2010). Innovative technologies of cultivation of strawberries. Moscow: Rosinformagrotech. (In Russian).
6.Kalashnikova, E.A., & Rodin, A.P. (2007). Obtaining planting material of woody and herbaceous plants using cellular and genetic engineering methods: Textbook. Edition 2. Moscow: MGUL. (In Russian).
7.Kulikov, I.M., Vysotsky, V.A., & Shipunova, A.A. (2005). Biotechnological methods in horticulture: economical aspects. Horticulture & viticulture, 5, 24-27. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Kukharchik, N.V., Kastritskaya, M.S., Semenas, S.E, Kolbanova, E.V., Krasinskaya, T.A., Volosevich, N.N., Solovei, O.V., Zmushko, A.A., Bozhidai, T.N., Rundya, A.P., & Malinovskaya, A.M. (2016). Reproduction of fruit and berry plants in culture in vitro. Minsk: Belaruskaya navuka. (In Russian).
9.Matushkina, O.V., & Pronina, I.P. (2001). Clonal micro propagation of fruit and berry crops and prospects of its using. In The basic results and prospects of scientific investigations of I.V. Michurin VNIIS: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 103-105). Tambov: VNIIS. (In Russian).
10.Matushkina, O.V., & Pronina, I.N. (2012). Regeneration ability of strawberries in isolated tissue culture. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 32 (1), 274-279. (In Russian, English abstract).
11.Matushkina, O.V., & Pronina, I.N. (2019). Technological aspects for in vitro propagation of strawberry. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 6 (1), 74-77. (In Russian, English abstract).
12.Mazneva, O.V., & Tashmatova, L.V. (2018). Optimization of the terms of strawberry in vitro introduction. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 78-83. https://doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2018-10210. (In Russian, English abstract).
13.Matsneva, O.V., Tashmatova, L.V., Hromova, T.M., & Shakhov, V.V. (2019). The introduction of strawberry varieties into in vitro culture. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 56, 29-36. https://doi.org/10.31676/2073-4948-2019-56-28-34
14.Muratova, S.A., & Horoshkova, Y.V. (2015). Clonal micropropagation plants - perspective method of modern nursery-garden. In The basis for improving the productivity of agrocenoses: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 367-373). Michurinsk: BIS. (In Russian).
15.Nadelyuev, A.L. (2002). Improvement of production technology of healthy planting material in the Leningrad region (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Sankt Petersburg State Agrarian University, Sankt Petersburg, Russia.
16.Rastorguev, S.L. (2012). Development of strawberry propagation methods in system in vitro. Bulletun of Michurinsk State Agrarian University, 1(1),10-13. (In Russian, English abstract).
17.Semenas, S.E., & Kukharchik, N.V. (2000). The optimization of methods of clonal micropropagation of orchard crops. Fruit-growing, 13, 138-145. (In Russian).
18.Skovorodnikov, D.N., Leonova, N.V., & Andronova, N.V. (2013). Influence of nutrient medium composition on efficiency of strawberry propagation in vitro. Vestnik OrelGAU, 1,89-92. (In Russian).
19.Anonymous (2012). Development strategy of breeding and nursery practice of fruit, berry crops and grapes in Russian Federation for the period till 2020, Moscow. (In Russian).
20.Suleymanova, S.D. (2016). Microclonal propagation of fruit crops. Wschodnioeuropean Czasopismo Naukove, 11(2), 47-54. (In Russian, English abstract).
21.Boxus, P.H. (1974). The production of strawberry plants by in vitro micropropaganion. Journal of Horticultural Science, 49(3), 209-210. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1974.11514571.
Galasheva A.M., Krasova N.G., Korolev E.Yu. (2019). VNIISPK apple cultivars on semi-dwarf intercalary rootstocks. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 120-126. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10412 (In Russian, English abstract). Highly profitable, adapted, precocious and productive varieties with high commodity and consumer qualities giving the maximum profit are suitable for intensive orchards. Such are the apple cultivars Sinap Orovsky and Imrus of VNIISPK breeding. The research was carried out at the Institute, founded in 1993, on semi-dwarf inset rootstocks 3-3-72 and 3-4-98. Apple cultivars on semi-dwarf inset rootstocks have low-sized trees, they come into fruiting early, the periodicity of fruiting decreases and the quality of the fruit improves. The studies showed that the trees of Imrus and Sinap Orlovsky on semi-dwarf intercalary rootstocks 3-4-98 and 3-3-72 reached 3.2—3.6 m in the strength of growth and were suitable, with planting scheme of 6×3 m. Imrus and Sinap Orlovsky on semi-dwarf intercalary rootstocks 3-4-98 and 3-3-72 started fruiting in the fifth year after planting. The trees of these cultivars gave high yields at the age of 11—15 years; Sinap Orlovsky – 31.3 kg/tree, on average and Imrus – 40.2 kg/tree. The yield of Imrus trees on semi-dwarf intercalary rootstocks 3-4-98 and 3-3-72 was significantly higher than that of the variety Sinap Orlovsky. Taking into account the size of the crown, the evaluation of tree productivity gives a comparison of crop loads per unit volume of the crown, the area of the projection of the crown and the cross sectional area of the trunk. Crop load on semi-dwarf intercalary rootstocks 3-4-98 and 3-3-72 was on average higher in Imrus than in Sinap Orlovsky.
1.Galasheva, A.M. (2007). Growth and fruiting features of apple varieties in the intensive orchard (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Orel State Agrarian University, Orel, Russia. (IN Russian).
2.Gryazev, V.A. (1998). Seedling growing for highly productive orchards (pp 16-52). Stavropol: Caucasus. (In Russian)
3.Egorov, E.A., Prichko, T.G., Ulianovskaya, E.V., Popova, V.P., Artukh, S.N., Podgornaya, M.E., Fomenko, T.G., Efimova, I.L., & Shadrina, Zh.A. (2018). Promising cultivars and cultivation technologies of apples in the south of Russia. Krasnodar: FSBSI NCFSCHV. (In Russian).
4.Krasova, N.G., & Galasheva, A.M. (2004). Productivity of apple cultivars in the intensive orchard. Inbreeding and variety agronomic practice of fruit crops (pp 24-31). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian ).
5.Stepanov, S.N. (1988). Recommendations on using intercalary stocks for obtaining low-sized apple trees in fruit-growing zones with severe winters. Moscow. (In Russian).
6.Sedov, E.N., & Krasova, N.G. (2000). Dwarf stocks as intercalation and new apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding for intensive orchards (p. 11). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
7.Sedov, E.N., Krasova, N.G., Zhdanov, V.V., Dolmatov, E.A., & Mozhar, N.V. (1999). Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253-300). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8.Sedov, E.N. & Serova, Z.M. (2016). Results of apple breeding in Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK). Sovremennoye Sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 1-4. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/1/1.pdf
9.Stepanov, S.N. (1984). Requirements to intercalary apple rootstocks in zones with severe winter. In Proceedings of I.V. Michurin Russian Research Institute of Horticulture (Vol. 42, pp. 30-35).Michurinsk: VNIIS. (In Russian).
Tashmatova, L.V., Matzneva, O.V., Shakhov, V.V. & Khromova, T.M. (2019). Clonal micropropagation of apple varieties with Vf gene. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 127-134. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10413 (In Russian, English abstract). Clonal micropropagation is promising method of reproduction of improved planting material varieties with valuable properties. This process is greatly influenced by factors such as genotype, explant condition, conditions of the introduction of the explant into the sterile culture, conditions of cultivation. And this influence can be seen at all stages of cultivation. Therefore, the aim of our research are to improve the sterilization regimes of plant material at the stage of introduction into the culture in vitro apple with the gene (Vf) to increase the yield of sterile explants and to study the effect of 6-BAP on the reproduction rate at the stage of proliferation. The objects of study: apple’s varieties Bolotovskoe, Imrus Kandil Orlovsky and Orlovskoe Polesye. The study of the influence of the timing of introduction on the development of explants at the stage of introduction into the culture in vitro showed that the period of active growth – June is the most favorable for apple. In the study of sterilizing agents, it was revealed that the sterilizing effect of sulema and mertiolate for the periods of introduction into the culture was the same. In the phase of the beginning of growth, the infection rate was quite high in all varieties except Imrus and could be more than 50%, regardless of the type of sterilizing agent. In the phase of active growth, the maximum infection rate was 5.1% in Bolotovskoe variety. The maximum yield of explants is 90% in the Kandil Orlovsky variety. Explants were cultured on QL nutrient medium on the background of BAP 0.5 mg / l for three weeks. They were then transplanted to a culture medium containing BAP at a concentration of 0.8 mg/l. At the stage of micropropagation, BAP at a concentration of 1.0 mg/l and 2.0 mg/l was used. BAP concentration of 1.0 mg/l contributes to the formation of micro-shoots suitable for rooting, and a concentration of 2.0 mg/l – increase the reproduction rate.
1.Byadovsky, I.A. (2013). The effect of different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopyrine and thidiazuron on the coefficient of propagation of clonal apple and pear rootstocks in vitro. Pomiculture & Small Fruits culture in Russia. 37,1, 52-55. (In Russian).
2.Van-Unkan, N.Yu., Saveliev, N.I., & Oleynikova, O.Ya. (2016). In vitro propagation of columnar apple cultivars. In Biotechnology in fruit-growing: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 32-34). Samohvalovichy (In Russian).
3.Kataeva, N.B., & Butenko, R.G. (1983). Clonal micro propagation of plants. Moscow. (In Russian).
4.Dzhigadlo, E.N., Dzhigadlo, M.I., & Golyshkina, L.V. (2005). Methodical recommendations for using biotechnological methods in work with fruit, berry and ornamental crops. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
5.Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Makarkina, M.A., Serova, Z.M., & Korneyeva, S.A. (2014). Priority directions in apple breeding. In: Breeding and variety propagation of orchard crops. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops (pp. 5-28). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Tashmatova, L.V., Matzneva, O.V., Shakhov, V.V., & Hromova, T.M. (2018). Features of the first stage of clonal micropropagation of immune apple varieties. Contemporary horticulture, 3, 14-21. https://doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10315 (In Russian, English abstract)
8.Matushkina, O.V., & Pronina, I.N. (2008). Technology of clonal apple and pear micropropagation (methodical recommendations). Michurinsk: VSTISP. (In Russian).
9.Kukharchik, N.V., Kastritskaya, M.S., Semenas, S.E, Kolbanova, E.V., Krasinskaya, T.A., Volosevich, N.N., Solovei, O.V., Zmushko, A.A., Bozhidai, T.N., Rundya, A.P., & Malinovskaya, A.M. (2016). Reproduction of fruit and berry plants in culture in vitro. Minsk: Belaruskaya navuka. (In Russian).
10.Frolova, L.V. (2011). Optimization of some stages of clonal micro propagation of apples. Pomiculture & Small Fruits culture in Russia. 26, 250-255. (In Russian, English abstract).