Vasiliev, À.À., Glaz, N.V., & Gasymov, F.M. (2019). Ecological plasticity of pear varieties in the Southern Urals. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 1-8. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10301 (In Russian, English abstract).
The aim of the research was to evaluate the Urals pear assortment in terms of productivity, environmental plasticity and stability in the conditions of the Southern Urals. The use of the classical technique of S.A. Eberhart and W.A. Russell, improved by domestic scientists, allowed to reveal the high adaptability of pear varieties of Chelyabinsk breeding: Vekovaya, Zolotoy Shar, Mif, Zametnaya, Krasnobokaya, Severyanka, Favoritka and Ovatsiya (coefficient of adaptability from 102 to 132%). Among the genotypes that combine high plasticity and stability, high-productive pear varieties should be distinguished: Zametnaya (12.9 t/ha; bi = 1.00; Si2 = 3.0), Ovatsiya (12.4 t/ha; 1.13; 1.5) and Dekabrinka (11.3 t/ha; 0.84; 2.3). High indices of plasticity and stability are in the varieties Larinskaya (bi = 1.12; Si2 = 1.3), Chelyabinskaya zimnyaya (0.90; 2.8) and Bolshaya (0.93; 1.4); however, their yield is not very high for the region. Vekovaya as a plastic (bi= 1.10) and fairly stable variety (Si2 = 6.7). has the highest productivity (15.5 t/ha) among the studied varieties The varieties of intensive type include Krasnobokaya (13.9 t/ha; bi = 1.80; Si2 = 5.1); Favoritka (13.0 t/ha; 1.65; 3.8), Raduzhnaya (12.0 t/ha; 1.37; 2.1) and Severyanka (12.7 t/ha; 1.29; 1.4). The last three varieties have high stability. The varieties Zolotoy Shar (bi = 0.41), Tayozhnaya (0.57), Krasulya (0.57), Mif (0.63) and Skazochnaya (0.71) have low plasticity. Tayozhnaya and Krasulya at the same time have high stability (Si2 = 1.2 and 0.9, respectively) and increased yield (10.9—11.0 t/ha), while the Skazochnaya variety and highly productive varieties Zolotoy Shar and Mif, on the contrary, have low stability (Si2 = 15.3; 11.8 and 9.0).
2.Falkenberg, E.A. (2006). Ussuri pear – a donor of resistance to biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Herald of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2, 43-47. (In Russian).
3.Vilchinskaya, M.V., Bolsheshapova, N.I., Burlov, S.P., & Li, I. (2015). Agrobiological evaluation of potato hybrids in conditions of forest-steppe zone of Eastern Siberia. Vestnik IrGSCHA, 69, 7-14. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Gurin, A.G. (2016). Physiological aspects of mineral fertilizers application in fruit and decorative nursery-garden. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 3, 92-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.18551/rjoas.2016-03.10 (In Russian, English abstract)
5.Loginov, Yu.P., Ivanenko, A.S., Zovarnyatnykh, E.N., Rychkov, V.A., & Burlov, S.P. (2012). Selective value of potato varieties in Siberia. Vestnik IrGSHA, 52, 7-15. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Tikhonchuk, P.V., Schegorets, O.V., Zakharova, E.B., Churilova, K.S., & Volkova, E.A. (2016). Amur region agriculture system: problems and ways of problem solving. Far East Agrarian Bulletin, 3, 130-139. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Sergeeva, L.B., & Shanina, E.P. (2014). General adaptive capacity and ecological stability of potato varieties depending on the background of mineral nutrition and cultivation zone. Agro-food policy in Russia, 6, 19-22. (In Russian).
8.Dobrutskaya, E.G., & Pivovarov, E.F. (2000). Ecological Role of the Variety in the XXI Century. Selection and seed production, 1, 3-5. (In Russian).
9.Falkenberg, E.A. (2005). The use of Ussuri pear in the creation of new varieties adapted to the regions of risky fruit growing. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 12, 124-137. (In Russian).
10.Pechenkin, P.M., & Gasymov, F.M. (2011). Results of the selection of pears in the South Ural. Achievements of Science and Technology of AICis, 5, 41-43. (In Russian, English abstract)
11.Sedov, E.N., Kalinina, I.P. & Smykov, V.K. (1995). Apple breeding. In E.N. Sedov (Ed.), Program and methods fruit, berry and nut crop breeding (pp. 159-200). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
12.Sedov, E.N., Krasova, N.G., Zhdanov, V.V., Dolmatov, E.A., & Mozhar, N.V. (1999). Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253-300). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
13.Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Field experiment method (with statistic processing of investigation results) (pp. 230-262). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
14.Zykin, V.A., Meshkova, V.V., & Sapega, V.A. (1984). Parameters of Ecological Plasticity of Crops, Their Calculation and Analysis. Methodical Instructions. Novosibirsk, 1984. (In Russian).
15.Zhivotkova, L.A., Morozova, Z.N., & Sekatueva, L.I. (1994). Methods of Identifying the Potential Productivity and Adaptability of Varieties and Breeding Forms of Winter Wheat in Terms of "Yield". Selection and seed production, 2, 3-6. (In Russian).
16.Vasiliev, A.A., & Gasymov, F.M. (2019). Assessment of ecological plasticity of plum and apricot varieties. Vestnik Bashkir State Agrarian University, 2, 15-20. https://doi.org/10.31563/1684-7628-2019-50-2-15-21 (In Russian, English abstract).
17.Glaz, N.V., Vasiliev, A.A., Dergileva, T.T., & Mushinskiy, A.A. (2019). Middle-early and mid-ripening varieties of potato: environmental assessment of flexibility. Far East Agrarian Bulletin, 1, 10-19. https://doi.org/10.24411/1999-6837-2019-11002(In Russian, English abstract).
18.Loginov, Yu.P., & Kazak, A.A. (2015). Ecological plasticity of potatoes cultivars in Tyumen region. Bulletin of the Kemerovo State University, 1, 24-28. (In Russian, English abstract).
Bezlepkina, E.V., Guliaeva, A.A., & Galkova, A.A. (2019). The PawS5 retrotransposon based genotyping of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from collection of the Russian research institute of fruit crop breeding (VNIISPK). Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 9-15. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10302 DNA passport creation is a method of varieties identification on the basis of DNA polymorphism. DNA passport of variety may be foundation for copyright protection of plant breeders’ rights, product quality control. Moreover, analysis of DNA polymorphism allows evaluate the genetic diversity of collection, the degree of phylogenetic relationships between varieties, is a high-technology method of breeding contributes to the selection of the parent varieties for hybridization. Retrotransposon based DNA markers are one of the more successfully used instruments for DNA genotyping of agricultural plants. The advantage of R173 retrotransposon family are in the high copy number (about 15 000 copies per diploid rye genome) and its dispersion over the entire length of all chromosomes. This study presents the results of the DNA polymorphisms analysis of PawS5 retrotransposon (belongs R173 retrotransposon family) marker of apricot varieties of domestic selection (excepting two varieties form USA and Ukraine). Gel electrophoresis analysis of 34 varieties from different breeding centers was done. By results no one repeated gel electrophoresis profile was identified. As bands (visualized PCR products of close size) presented almost in all samples, as rare and unique bands were detected. Varieties with more unique gel electorophoresis profile were identified. It was variety Grafinia and hybrids ¹4 Baykalova, ¹8 Baykalova, ¹9 Baykalova, 2-23 Baykalova, 3-2 Baykalova, 6-25 Baykalova. Received data shows high efficiency of PawS5 retrotransposon marker for DNA typing of apricot varieties.
1.Biryukova, V.A., Zaitsev, V.S., Khavkin, E.E., Khromova, L.M. (2006). Genotyping of potato varieties on the base of moderate repetitive sequences polymorphism. Questions of potatogrowing. (pp. 54-62). Moscow: VNIIKH. (In Russian).
2.Glazko, V.I., Elkina, M.A.,& Glazko, T.T. (2012). Homologous nucleotide sequences of the flank of retrotransposon PawS5 of R173 family in animal and plant genomes. Agricultural biology, 4, 36-41. https://www.doi.org/10.15389/agrobiology.2012.4.36eng
3.Dzhigadlo, E.N., Javier, P., & Olechko-Lutkova, C. (2010). Evaluation of genetic polymorphism of varieties and hybrids of cherry and sweet cherry using DNA markers (methodical recommendations). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4.Yelkina, M.A., Pylnev, V.V., Sepherova, I.V., & Glazko, V.I. (2013). LTR-retrotransposons in genomes of plants. Izvestiya of Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 2, 179-182. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Zhimulev, I.F. (2007). General and molecular genetics: textbook for higher educational institution. (pp. 131-142) Novosibirsk:Siberian University publishing house. (In Russian).
6.Prudnikov, P.S., & Dzhigadlo, E.N. (2012). Genetic analysis of stone crops on an example of cherry varieties. In: Selection, genetics and variety agrotechnics of fruit crops. (pp. 120-123). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
7.Romanova, O.V., & Vysotskiy, V.A. (2007). Method of molecular-genetic identification of varieties of stone cultures. Moscow: VTISP. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Guidet, F., Rogowsky, P.M., Taylor, C., Song, W., & Langridge, P. (1991). Cloning and characterization of a new rye-specific repetitive sequence. Genome, 34(1), 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1139/g91-014
9.Porebski, S., Bailey, L.G., & Baum, B.R. (1997). Modification of a CTAB DNA extraction protocol for plants containing high polysaccharide and polyphenol components. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 15(1), 8-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02772108
10.Rogowsky, P.M., Manning, S., Liu, J-Y., & Langridge, P. (1991). The R173 family of rye-specific repetitive DNA sequences: a structural analysis. Genome, 34(1), 88-95. https://doi.org/10.1139/g91-015
11.Rogowsky, P.M., Liu, J.-Y., Manning, S., Taylor, C., & Langridge, P. (1992a). Structural heterogeneity in the R173 family of rye-specific repetitive DNA sequences. Plant Molecular Biology, 20(1), 95-102. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00029152
12.Rogowsky, P.M., Shepherd, K.W., & Langridge, P. (1992b). Polymerase chain reaction based mapping of rye involving repeated DNA sequences. Genome, 35(4), 621-626. https://doi.org/10.1139/g92-093
Saltykova, T.I., Vahrusheva, N.S., & Sofronov, A.P. (2019). The assessment of initial black currant material of FSBSI FARC of the North-East selection according to the complex of traits. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 16-21. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10303 The studies were carried out in the experimental orchard of FSBSI FARC of the North-East (FEDERAL STATE BUDGET SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION “FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTRE“) (Kirov) in 2013—2018. 9 selected black currant seedlings planted in 2011 were the objects of the research. The Vologda variety was taken as a standard. The average productivity of the studied genotypes varied from 1.2 to 6.2 t/ha during the period of the research; the reliable excess, according to the standard indicator (3.1 t/ha), was noticed in 37-3-03 (6.2 t/ha) and 26-8-03 (5.3 t/ha). The significant variability in crop yield of all studied hybrids was distinguished (coefficient of variation is more than 20%), that shows fruiting instability during the period of the research. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the selective black currant forms reach the maximum of their productivity at the 4th—5th year after their planting. According to the large-fruitiness trait (an average weight of a berry is 1.2 g and more) during the years of the research, four forms were distinguished: 37-3-03 (1.32 g) with significant stability of the trait (V=9.96%), 90-17-97, 39-3-03 and 26-8-03. During the studied period, an average variability of a berry was noticed by years (CV=13.91%). In selected forms 26-8-03, 37-3-03, 39-3-03, 90-17-97, 24-3-03 the maximal damage by bud mite didn’t exceed 1.0 point, that shows their resistance to it. Moderate negative effects of pest damage on a crop yield was found (r=-0.44). The variation of mildew damage extent to selected forms was identified on average from 0.5 to 3.0 points during the years. The moderate negative effect of the disease on a crop yield was found (r=-0.39. The sources of the resistance to bud mite were revealed: 39-3-03, 90-17-97 and 24-3-03; according to a complex of economically valuable features, forms 26-8-03 and 37-3-03 were distinguished, they combine high crop yield, large-fruitiness and high resistance to bud mite. These genotypes are valuable as an initial material for the further selection.
1.Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the Field Experiment (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
2.Zatsepina, I.V. (2012). Black and red currant variety resistance to pests. Plant Protection News, 4, 61-64. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Knyazev, S.D., & Ogoltsova, T.P. (2004). Black currant breeding at present. Orel: OrelGAU. (In Russian).
4.Knyazev, S.D., Levgerova, N.S., Makarkina, M.A., Pikunova, A.V., Salina, E.S., Chekalin, E.I., Yanchuk, T.V., & Shavyrkina, M.A. (2016). Black currant breeding: methods, achievements, directions. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
5.Lamonov, V.V. (2011). Raw material and black currant selection for resistance to big bud mite. (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Michurinsk, Michurinsk state agrarian university, Russia (In Russian).
6.Loginycheva, A.G., Kosolapova, G.N., & Plenkina, G.A. (1995). History and prospects of development of gardening and breeding of fruit-berry crops in the North-East of the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia. Bulletin of North-East Agricultural Research Institute, 1, 69-72. (In Russian).
7.Ogoltsova, T.P., & Kuminov, E.P. (1995). Blackcurrant breeding. In E.N. Sedov (Ed.), Program and methods of selection fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 314-340). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8.Knyazev, S.D. & Bayanova, L.V. (1999). Currants, gooseberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 351-373). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9.Sazonov, F.F. (2017) The main objectives and results of breeding of black currants in the conditions of the south-western part of Non-Chernozem zone of Russia. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 48(1), 215-220 (In Russian, English abstract).
10.Saltykova, T.I. (2016). Productivity of blackcurrant varieties in conditions of Kirov region. Bulletin of Michurinck state agrarian University, 4, 52-57. (In Russian, English abstract).
Vasileva, N.A. (2019). New honeysuckle variety for Eastern Siberia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 22-26. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10304 In Buryatia, the sweet-berry honeysuckle became more popular and widespread as a horticultural crop in 1988. The exceptional advantage of honeysuckle is the early ripening of fruit: 15—20 June. Honeysuckle is notable for unpretentiousness, winter hardiness andprecocity. Berries are juicy, tender, with a pleasant taste and intense ruby juice. They are a valuable foodstuff, both fresh and in compote, jam, juices. The fruits contain a complex of vitamins, sugars, acids, pectin substances, micro – and macronutrients (potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, silicon, iodine, etc.). Since old times, honeysuckle berries have been used in folk medicine for hypertension as a means of strengthening the walls of blood vessels, preventing capillary fragility and reducing blood pressure.It has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects. Buryatia The varieties of Altai selection (Berel, Gerda, Goluboe vereteno) are wide spread in the orchards of Buryatia. The creation of the varieties with a complex of agronomic traits (winter hardiness, drought resistance, high crop yield, large size of fruits, resistance to pests and diseases) is the main goal in the honeysuckle breeding in Transbaikalia. As a result of the analytical selection, for the first time the variety of sweet-berry honeysuckle Golubizna of the Buryat breeding was developed. The experimental studies on the development of Golubizna were conducted during 1998—2018. Winter-hardy sweet-berry honeysuckle variety was developed with an average and uniform ripening period, with berries of sweet taste and technical purpose. In 2018 it was transferred to the state variety testing.
1.Zholobova, Z.P. (1989). Culture of blue honeysuckle of Siberia. In State and prospects of development of rare garden crops in the USSR (pp. 29-33). Michurinsk: VNIIS (in Russian).
2.Guseva, N.K., & Vasilyeva, N.A. 2015. The variety of honeysuckle in the conditions of Buryatia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 26-30. Retrieved from: http://journal-vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/4/59.pdf (In Russian, Englich abstract).
3.Zhidekhina, T.V., & Kuminov, E.P. (1996). The source material in honeysuckle breeding for the quality of berries and suitability for mechanized harvesting. In The collection of reports of the XVI Michurinskiy readings (pp. 71-74). Michurinsk: VNIIS (in Russian).
4.Plekhanova, M.N. (1999). Honeysuckle. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 444–457). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
5.Guseva, N.K., Sordonova, M.N., Batueva, Yu.M., Myakhanova, N.T., Kirgizova, G.T., & Lubsanova, E.Yu. 2014. Varieties of fruit crops and their cultivation technology in Buryatia: methodological recommendations. Ulan-Ude: BSAA. (In Russian).
6.Guseva N.K., Batueva Yu.M., & Vasileva N.A. (2016). Catalogue of fruit, berry and ornamental crops. Ulan-Ude: Buryatia Scientific Center of SB RAS (in Russian).
7.Shiripnimbueva, B.Ts., Arbakov, K.A., Guseva, N.K., & Batueva, Yu.M. (2010). Horticulture in Buryatia. Ulan-Ude: BSAA. (In Russian).
Gruner, L.A. (2019). Adaptive capabilities of blackberries in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 27-41. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10305 The results of the assessment of blackberry adaptability indicators are presented for 2014—2018, allowing to ensure the viability and good productivity of this low-resistant culture in the middle of Russia. The studies were carried out with the use of conventional methods. Introduced blackberry cultivars and genotypes of different ecological and geographical origin were studied. In the weather conditions of specific years, the analysis of phenotypic reactions of representatives of the main morphological groups of blackberries (erect, trailing and semi-erect/semi-trailing) on the impact of optimal for life and extreme environmental factors was carried out. The importance of different genetically determined qualities of plants in effective adaptation to growing conditions is shown. Indicators of frost and winter hardiness, drought resistance, timeliness of the main phenological phases, the degree of self-fertility, recovery ability after winter damage due to the specific structure of the bush and its morphological diversity, the intensity of growth of canes and indicators of resistance to diseases and pests are considered to be the most important. As a result, it was found that despite the low winter hardiness, blackberries can be grown in the Orel region with the use of winter shelter material Agrotex with density of 60 g/m2, ensuring good safety of plants even when covered in one layer. In the case of prolonged growth of shoots in the late summer, 2 layers of fiber are needed. Drought resistance in the years of study was at a high level in all evaluated samples. The main phenophases took place in the optimal time for the culture except for late varieties, in which the non-ripening of the crop was observed in a rainy year. The self-fertility of the studied genotypes was shown at the level allowing to recommend single-cultivar planting of the culture. The blackberries showed good recovery ability after severe damage in the winter of 2017—2018, caused by prolonged growth during the growing season and prolonged cooling in the early spring period. The defeat of individual genotypes by diseases and pests in the years of study was minimal and did not cause them significant damage.
1.Anonymous (1960). Agroclimatic reference book for Orel region (pp. 6-10). Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat. (In Russian).
2.Gruner, L.A. (2014). Blackberries. In E.N. Sedov & L.A. Gruner (Eds.), Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops (vol. 5, pp. 300-308). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Gruner, L.A., Kuleshova, O.V., Roeva, T.A., & Knyazev, S.D. (2018). Water content indicators of blackberry plants in conditions of different moisture during the period of berry ripening. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 42-47. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2018-10207 (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Gruner, L.A., & Kuleshova, O.V. (2017). Blackberry winter hardiness with using winter covering and TUR retardant in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2017-00020. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the Field Experiment (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
6.Evdokimenko, S.N. & Kulagina, V.L. (2015). Evaluation of blackberry varieties and raspberry-blackberry hybrids in conditions of the Bryansk region. Horticulture and viticulture, 4, 20-23. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Eremin, G.V., & Gasanova, T.A. (1999). Study of heat and drought resistance of cultivars. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 80–85). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8.Kazakov, I.V., Gruner, L.A., & Kichina, V.V. (1999). Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 374–395). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9.Krasova, N.G., Ozherelieva, Z.E., Golyshkina, L.V., Makarkina, M.A. & Galasheva, A.M. (2014). Winter hardiness of apple cultivars. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10.Semionova, L.G., & Dobrenkov, E.A. (2001). Adaptation potential of blackberries in conditions of the western foothills of the North Caucasus. Maykop: EDVI. (In Russian).
11.Clark, J.R., & Finn, C.E. (2011). Blackberry breeding and genetics. In: (Eds.). Methods in Temperate Fruit Breeding. Fruit, Vegetable, and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 5 (Special Issue 1). Global Science Books, Ltd. UK. p. 27-43.
12.Finn, C.E. & Strik, B.C. (2014). Blackberry Cultivars for Oregon. Retrieved from: https://catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/sites/catalog/files/project/pdf/ec1617.pdf
13.Strik, B.C., Finn, C.E., Clark, J.R., & Banados, P. (2007). Worldwide Production of Blackberries. HortTechnology, 17(2), 205-213. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.17.2.205
Gulyaeva, A.A., Berlova, T.N., Bezlepkina, E.V., & Efremov, I.N. (2019). Influence of the rootstock on the shot-hole damage of the cultivars of Prunus salicina. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 42-47. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10306 The article gives the results of the study on the influence of clonal rootstock on the degree of damage to the shot-hole of this crop. As the objects of research, the Prunus salicina varieties, derived on the basis of the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding – Alyonushka, Krasa Orlovschiny, Orlovskaya Mechta, Orlovsky Souvenir, were used. Each of considered varieties was grafted onto clonal rootstocks 146-2, Novinka and SVG-11-19. The studies were carried out in the plantings of the laboratory of stone fruits breeding and cultivars studying of VNIISPK in the period from 2015 to 2017. The plant layout is 5.0×2.5 m. During each vegetation period, the plantings under study were subjected to the use of a standard scheme of protection against diseases and pests. As a result, it was possible to establish that the plum rootstock SVG-11-19 as a whole shows a higher degree of resistance to shot-hole compared with other plum rootstocks, the Novinka and 146-2. On the rootstock 146-2, Prunus salicina cultivar Orlovsky Souvenir proved to be the most resistant to shot-hole, which showed an average degree of damage for three years at a level of 0.33 points. Prunus salicina cultivars Orlovskaya Mechta and Orlovsky Souvenir showed higher resistance to the shot-hole on the Novinka rootstock. The degree of damage in them was 0.67 points. On the SVG-11-19 rootstock, Prunus salicina cultivar Krasa Orlovschiny showed higher resistance by shot-hole. The degree of damage was equal to 0.56 points. All the data given in the article are statistically processed and are completely reliable.
1.Gulyaeva, A.A. (2015). Sour cherry and sweet cherry. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
2.Dzhigadlo, E.N., Kolesnikova, A.F., Eremin, G.V., Morozova, T.V., Debiskaeva, S.Y., Kanshina, M.V., Kanshina, M.V., Medvedeva, N.I., & Simagin, V.S. (1999). Stone fruit crops. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 300–351). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Zaremuk, R.Sh., & Bogatyryova, T.N. (2016). Optimization of Plum domestic assortment by varieties of native breeding for creation of steady fruit plantings. Scientific publications of FSBSO NCRRIH&V, 9, 85-89. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Kulikov, I.M., Upadyshev, M.T., & Golovin, S.E. (2014). Phytosanitary problems gardening Russia. Horticulture and viticulture, 1, 3-6. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Mager, M.K., Chernec, A.M., Mager, V.M., Prodanyuk, L.N., Dumitrash ,Yu.I., Kalashyan, Yu.A., & Lukica, V.I. (2013). Protection of the fallopian garden of the plum from pests and diseases in the Republic of Moldova. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 36(2), 3-8. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Palk, Ya.Yu. (1963). Rootstocks of apples and plums in the Estonian SSR (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Tartu, Estonia. (In Russian).
7.Pleskatsevich, R.I., Berlinchik, E.E., & Meleshko, N.I. (2013). Evaluation of phytosanitary condition of diploid plum plantations. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 37, 93-97. (In Russian, English abstract).
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95. Zhao, Z.P., Duan, M., Yan, S., Liu, Z.F., Wang, Q., Fu, J., & Tong, Y. (2017). Effects of different fertilizations on fruit quality, yield and soil fertility in field-grown kiwifruit orchard. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 10(2), 162–171. https://doi.org/10.3965/j.ijabe.20171002.2569
Vetrova, O.A. (2019). Agrotechnical methods of regulating the level of lead in strawberry berries. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 70-77. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10308 The purpose of our studies was to evaluate the efficiency of agrotechnical methods (mineral fertilizing, zeolitization, liming, variety replacement) to reduce the intake of lead in strawberry berries in terms of technogenic pollution. The effect of the agrotechnical methods on the content of lead in strawberry berries was studied in 2007—2008 on the field plot situated in a zone of technogenic pollution in the settlement of the Mtsensk district, Oryol region. Four strawberry cultivars were studied: Rubinovy Kulon, Mamochka, Bylinnaya and Bogema. The site was chosen for research due to the close location (at a distance of 800 m) from a large dump of salt slag, which is the waste of the non-ferrous metal scrap processing plant. A preliminary investigation of the experimental plot showed that the gross lead content was 29.1 mg / kg (0.45 ÏÄÊ). In the gray forest soils of the Orel region the background level of lead content is regionally exceeded by 2 times. The studied varieties reacted differently to agricultural practices used in the field experiment. Rubinovy Kulon positively reacted on the agricultural methods reducing the lead intake in berries. In different years of studies, all of the used agrotechnical methods authentically decreased the content of this element in berries by 50% and more. During two years, Mamochka did not react on the agricultural methods reducing the lead intake in berries. Among the studied varieties, Bylinnaya was characterized by little accumulation of the toxic element. This variety can be considered as promising for use in “organic” systems of gardening. Bogema showed the significant responsiveness to techniques reducing the lead intake in berries. All the methods used in the experiment significantly reduced the content of this element in berries by 70% or more. In the conditions of technogenic pollution, the correct selection of varieties in combination with effective agrotechnical techniques is necessary for strawberry production with the minimum accumulations of lead.
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4.Vetrova, O.A., Kuznetsov, M.N., Leonicheva, E.V., Motylyova, S.M., & Mertvishcheva, M.E. (2014). The accumulation of heavy metals in the organs of strawberry in the conditions of industrial pollution. Agricultural Biology, 5, 113-119. (In Russian, English abstract). https://doi.org/10.15389/agrobiology.2014.5.113eng
5.Vetrova, O.A. (2018). Agrotechnical methods of regulating the level of nickel in strawberry berries. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 139-146. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10318 (In Russian, English abstract)
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9.Kuznetzov, M.N., Roeva, T.A., Leonicheva, E.V., & Motyleva, S.M. (2010). Effect of soil medium fertility on the efficiency of zeolite contenting rock inactivator of heavy metals in berry agrocenosis. Contemporary horticulture, 1, 40-45. (In Russian, English abstract).
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11.Leonicheva, E.V., Leontyeva, L.I., & Shavyrkina, M.A. (2015). Estimation of Heavy Metal Content in the Fruits of New Varieties and Promising Black Currant Genotypes. Vestnik OrelGAU, 57 (6), 61-64. (In Russian, English abstract).
12.Motyleva, S.M., & Sosnina, M.V. (1996). Nickel accumulation by some fruit and berry crops. In Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops (pp. 227–228). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
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Salina, E.S., Sidorova, I.A., & Levgerova, N.S. (2019). Apple fruit firmness as an indicator of technical maturity for juice. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 78-84. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10309 Data on the use of apple fruit firmness as an indicator of the technical maturity of the fruit for juice are presented. The study was conducted on 10 scab immune apple varieties of VNIISPK breeding. Antonovka Common was taken as a control variety. The optimum degree of maturity for the juice was correlated with the fruit firmness, which allows to obtain the maximum yield of juice with high taste. The fruit firmness was determined on 20 fruits by penetrometer of the Salgirka type with a rod area of 4.5 mm2 in the following dynamics: immediately after the removal of the fruits from the trees, at the time of expected technical maturity and in 7—10 days after it. The fruits with fruit firmness within 4.3—7.1 kg/cm2 were characterized by the maximal yield of juice (above 70.0%) during the years of the study. Fruits with a loose pulp (2.6—3.6 kg/cm2) were characterized by the minimal yield of juice – about 50%. The fruits of the varieties of winter dates of maturing were characterized by dense flesh and high juice yield: Svezhest, Bolotovskoye and Antonovka Obyknovennaya. In 2011 and 2012 apples were characterized by higher fruit firmness and higher juice yield (6.2 kg/cm2; 65.0% and 6.1 kg/cm2; 64.9%, respectively) than in 2013 (5.3 kg/cm2; 62.3%) what was connected with the weather conditions during the vegetationperiod–in2013itwasmoredrierandlesswarm than in 2011 and 2012. Different degrees of varietal variability in flesh firmness of the fruits with a maximum yield of juice were observed. For most varieties it was characterized as average. During the study years, high variability of fruit firmness was noted only in the variety Yubilar. The varieties Zarianka, Orlovim and Svezhest were characterized by the highest stability of that indicator. Moderate differences in the firmness of the fruit pulp at the maximum juice yield indicate sufficient reliability of this indicator as an indicator of the technical degree of maturity for juice.
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7.Prichko, T.G. (2002). Biochemical and technological aspects of storage and processing of apple fruits. Krasnodar. (InRussian).
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13.Schobinger, W. (2004). Fruit and Vegetable Juices: Scientific Basis and Technology. St. Petersburg: Professiya Publ. (In Russian).
14.Atkinson, C.J., Taylor, L., & Kingswell, G. (2001). The importance of temperature differences, directly alter anthesis, in determining growth and cellular development of Malus fruits. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 76(6), 721-731. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2001.11511437
15.Lachapelle, M., Bourgeois, G., & DeEll, J.R. (2013). Effects of postharvest weather conditions on firmness of ‘McIntosh’ apples at harvest time. HortScience, 48(4), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.48.4.474
16.Yuri, J.A., Moggia, C., Sepulveda, A., Poblete-Echeverría, C., Valdés-Gómez, H., & Torres, C.A. (2019). Effect of cultivar, rootstock, and growing conditions on fruit maturity and postharvest quality as part of a six-year apple trial in Chile. Scientia Horticulturae, 253(27),70-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.04.020
Sidorova, I.A., Salina, E.S., & Levgerova, N.S. (2019). Some ways to diagnose the optimal time of harvesting apples for juice production. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 85-92. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2019-10310 The iodine starch sample (ISS), the density of the fruit, the content of soluble solids (SS) and titratable acids were studied as indicators of the technical degree of maturity of apples for juice. The work was carried out on 11 scab-immune apple varieties of VNIISPK breeding. It has been found that ISS values significantly vary by years. Only in ‘Solnyshko’, ‘Rozhdestvenskoye’, ‘Orlovim’ and ‘Pamiaty Khitrovo’ the variability of ISS values can be considered to be temperate. For these apple varieties the use of ISS as an indicator of the technical maturity of fruits is not excluded. In all other varieties, it is high, indicating the dependence of this indicator on many conditions and the unreliability of ISS use as an indicator of technical maturity for juice. Moderate differences in the values of the density of the pulp in the courses of the study in varieties indicate sufficient reliability of this indicator in determining the technical degree of maturity for juice and the possibility of its use as an indicator of the technical maturity of the fruit for juice. The SS indicator for most varieties was stable enough at the optimum time of harvesting and testified to a slight degree of variation (V ≤ 10%) with the exception of ‘Pamiaty Khitrovo, ‘Imrus’ and ‘Antonovka Obyknovennaya’, which were characterized by an average degree of variability of this indicator (10% ≤ V ≤ 20%). On this basis, the content of SS in the fruit is a fairly reliable way to determine the technical degree of maturity for the juice. The content of titratable acids is the labile index that is characterized by a higher degree of variability (V > 20%) than the SS content, so that it is not a stable indicator due to the significant dependence on the conditions of vegetation and can not serve as a reliable indicator of the technical degree of maturity for juice. The obtained data showed that the most reliable indicators of the technical degree of maturity of apples for juice are the density of fruit tissues (4.4—8.6 kg / cm) and the SS content (10% and above).
1.Daskalov, P., Aslanyan, R., Tenov, R., Zhivkov, M., & Bayadzhiev, R. (1969). Fruit and vegetable juice. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost. (In Russian).
2.Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the Field Experiment (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
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9.Prichko T.G. (2001). Methods of the forecast of terms of removal of apples (recommendations). Krasnodar. (InRussian).
10.Prichko, T.G. (2002). Biochemical and technological aspects of storage and processing of apple fruits. Krasnodar. (InRussian).
11.Sedov, E.N., Levgerova, N.S., Salina, E.S., & Serova, Z.M. (2010).Apple selection and breeding for juice production. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
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16.Shirokov, Å.P. (1988). Technology of storage and processing of fruits and vegetables with standardization bases. Moscow: Agropromizdat. (InRussian).
17.Williams, R.S., & Benkeblia, N. (2018). Biochemical and physiological changes of star apple fruit (Chrysophyllum cainito) during different "on plant" maturation and ripening stages. Scientia Horticulturae, 236, 36-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.03.007