Levgerova, N.S., Salina, E.S., Sidorova, I.A., Sedov, E.N., & Yanchuk, T.V. (2021). Technological indicators of the fruits of hybrid apple rootstocks and the prospects of their use in the production of cider. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 1-10. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0301 (In Russian, English abstract). The data of the chemical and technological evaluation of the fruits of the hybrid fund of apple rootstocks of the VNIISPK gene pool are presented in order to identify seedlings, the fruits of which are promising for the production of cider, and further breeding of cider cultivars. Recommendations on the use of selected forms for cider making and breeding of cider cultivars are given. As a result of the field survey of the hybrid pool of rootstocks, 17 rootstock forms were identified, which, according to the weight of fruits and their organoleptic qualities, were most suitable for the production of cider. The chemical and technological assessment of the selected rootstock forms showed that most of them were characterized by small fruits (¯x=31.2 g), characteristic of semi-crops, and only in 3 forms the fruit weight corresponded to the gradation "below average" (53—55 g). The selected forms were characterized by a low juice yield (¯x=63.1%), with the exception of form 13, in which the juice yield was 76.1% - at the level of world cider cultivars. A low value of the coefficient of variation (ÑV=7.6%) indicated the stability of this feature. The average content of SS in the juice was increased – 14.1%, the minimum was 8.7% (form 1), the maximum was16.7% (form 3) with the moderate varietal variability (ÑV =13.2%). The studied forms were characterized by a high content of titrated acids in the juice, on average 1.00%, and a very high varietal variability (ÑV =55.8%) from 0.30% (form 13) to 1.67% (form 16). With an average tannin content of 0.100%, the range of variability was from 0.066% (form 1) to 0.304% (form 3) (ÑV =50.3%). The technological assessment carried out showed the good suitability of the selected rootstock forms for the production of cider. In accordance with the generally accepted classification of cider cultivars, the studied forms can be attributed to the groups of sweet, bitter-sour and sour fruits. Due to the high acidity of the fruits, no form was included in the group of bittersweet fruits. The selected rootstock forms showed high suitability for cider production. The most promising was form 13, recommended for use in the breeding of cider cultivars.
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16.Sedov, E.N., Ìakarkina, Ì.À., & Levgerova, N.S. (2007). Biochemical and technological fruit description of apple gene pool. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
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Vetrova, O.A., Makarkina, Ì.A., & Leonteva, L.I. (2021). Study of soluble solids and ascorbic acid content in apples of Sinap orlovsky depending on the mineral nutrition. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 11-19. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0302 (In Russian, English abstract). The chemical composition of apples is influenced by various factors: cultivar, age of trees, the timing of their maturation and harvest, meteorological conditions of the growing season, etc., while mineral nutrition plays an important role in the formation of the yield and the quality of fruits. The aim of the work was to study the reaction of the apple cultivar Sinap Orlovsky on the application of various doses of mineral fertilizers. The results of the study of the effect of various doses of nitrogen and potash fertilizers introduced into the soil and applied as foliar fertilizers on some components of the chemical composition, i.e. soluble solids (SS) and ascorbic acid (AA) of Sinap Orlovsky fruit are presented. The scheme of the experiment included the application of increasing doses of nitrogen and potash fertilizers in combination with foliar fertilizing with these elements and without them. The average monthly temperature in the studied years slightly differed from the average annual data. As a result of the conducted studies (2017—2019), it was found that for all variants of the experiment, the SS content in Sinap Orlovsky fruit was significantly higher in 2019, which was influenced by the hydrothermal conditions of the studied years. The soil and foliar application of nitrogen and potash fertilizers did not have a significant effect on the SS content in the fruit of Sinap Orlovsky. Over the years of the research, the AA content in the fruit of Sinap Orlovsky varied from 2.70—6.21 mg/100 g and significantly changed from mineral nutrition and weather conditions of the growing season. The largest accumulation of ascorbic acid was noted in 2019. During three years of the research, the content of ascorbic acid in the fruit of Sinap Orlovsky was significantly lower in the variants with the use of minimal doses of nitrogen and potassium, both against the background of foliar fertilizing, and without it. The application of minimal doses of both soil and foliar fertilizing for three years contributed to a significantly lower decrease of the ascorbic acid content by 26—22 % compared to the control cultivar.
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7.Makarkina, M. A., Gruner, L.A., Yanchuk, T.V., & Pavel, A.R. (2010). Content of pectines in apples in the conditions of Russian Centrally- Chernozem region. Agricultural biology. 45(5), 23-26. (In Russian; English abstract).
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Pavlenkova, G.A., & Emelyanova, O.Yu. (2021). Taxonomic and chorological analysis of the beautifully flowering shrubs of the VNIISPK arboretum. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 20-30. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0303 (In Russian, English abstract). The collection fund of woody plants of the VNIISPK arboretum includes trees, shrubs, lianas, as well as perennial herbaceous plants. A special place is occupied by beautifully flowering shrubs, most of which have high decorative qualities and resistance to damaging abiotic and biotic environmental factors, which opens up wide opportunities for their use in landscaping. An important result of the introduction work is the taxonomic and chorological analysis of the collection. According to the results of the taxonomic analysis of the beautifully flowering shrubs of the VNIISPK arboretum, species and varietal diversity has been established. The most numerous orders in terms of the number of species, forms and varieties include Rosales (50) and Lamiales (45); of the families, Rosaceae (50) and Oleaceae (45) predominate; of the genera, Syringa (41) and Spiraea (26) predominate. The article presents the chorological structure of beautifully flowering shrubs, reflecting their ecological and geographical origin and the relationship of territorial growth in the arboretum of VNIISPK (Orel region) with the flora of Europe, North America, Siberia, the Far East and the Mediterranean. This helps to identify patterns of florogenesis, expand the potential of biodiversity, opportunities and directions of introduction. Based on the conducted chorological analysis of the beautifully flowering shrubs of the arboretum, a significant proportion of them are taxa of European origin (Europe zone) – 60 species, forms and varieties (they make up 42.9% of the total number of the taxa). The smallest number of taxa belong to the Mediterranean and Siberia zones – 2 species each, respectively (1.4 % of the total number of taxa). In the gene pool of the VNIISPK arboretum there are no species of beautifully flowering shrubs of Central Asian origin. In this regard, the priority direction of replenishing the bioresource collection of the arboretum in order to expand its biodiversity is to increase the number of species and varieties of plants from the Mediterranean, Siberia and Central Asia.
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