GorbachevaN. G. (2015): Microsporogenesis in hexaploid remote hybrid VCh-89-95-48 . Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 1-4. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/41.pdf On the basis of analysis of microsporogenesis of hexaploid remote hybrid VCh-89-95-48 it has been determined that a percent of disorders varies from 13,5% to 56,3% depending on a stage of meiosis. Heterotypic division is characterized by a higher percent of disorders than homeotypic division. At the final stages of meiosis, sporades with abnormal number of microspores (dyads, triads, pentads and hexads) are formed besides correct tetrads (77,8%). The formation of dyads is evidence of ability of a hybrid to produce not only triploid pollen but also hexaploid pollen. High output of tetraploid hybrids should be expected when crossing hexaploids with diploids.
1. Dzhigadlo E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Golyaeva O.D., Batikov S.G. (1993): On possibility of using remote hybridization on cherry breeding for resistance to coccomyces. In: On possibility of using remote hybridization of polyploidy in fruit and berry breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (in Russian). 2.Dzhigadlo E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Golyaeva O.D. (1992): Cytological and morphological estimation of remote hybrids of cherry. In: Scientific works of NIISPK. Orel, NIISPK: 104-111. (in Russian). 3. Topilskaya L.A., Luchnikova S.V., Chuvashina N.P. (1975): Study of currant somatic and meiotic chromosomes on acetohematoxylin squash preparations. In: Bulleten CGL im. I.V. Michurina, 22: 58-61. (in Russian).
Guseva N. K. (2015): The main components of the productivity of black currants and especially their inheritance in the offspring. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 5-9. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/42.pdf
The article presents a selection estimation of the productivity components of hybrids of black currants in a Trans-Baikal. The hybrid offspring of the parental forms obtained by intervarietal inside and interspecific crosses with the descendants of European and Siberian subspecies of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.), spruce grouse currant (R. dicusha Fisch). From hybrid funds allocated valuable genetic sources and donors separate economic valuable attributes for future breeding and elite forms perspective for the amateur and commercial cultivation.
1. Batueva Y. M. (2015): Self-pollination and crosspollination of apple kinds regionalized in Buryatia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1: 8-13 Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/1/2.pdf. (in Russian).
2. Guseva N.K. (2009): Self-pollination of Buryat kinds of black currant. In: Conception and technology of agriculture in arid zone of Altai-Sayan subregion, Abakan: 79-82. (in Russian).
3. Knyazev S.D., Ogoltsova T.P. (2004): Black currant breeding at present. Orel, OrelGAU. (in Russian).
4. Guseva N.K., Batueva Yu.M., Budaeva N.A., Togmitova V.W. (2015): Evaluation of Newly-developed Blackcurrant Cultivars in Dry Zone of Buryatia. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 12(2): 1787-1795. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bbra/1843
5. Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. (1995): Sedov E.N. (ed.). Orel, VNIISPK. (in Russian).
6. Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. (1999): Sedov E.N. (ed.). Orel, VNIISPK. (in Russian).
Gruner L.A., Kuleshova O.V. (2015): Research directions and prospects of blackberry cultivation in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 10-16. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/43.pdf
Priority directions of blackberry studies in conditions of Orel region have been determined. They intend to select cultivars accessions with high frost and cold hardiness, early fruiting, early and simultaneous ripening of berries, high autogamy, habit suitable for formation and covering, early vegetation completing, thornless and quite vigorous shoots, good annual shoot formation, disease resistance, steady high yields, large size of fruit, small seeds, high taste qualities of berries, high content of the most important biochemical components and good transportability of fruit. Preliminary results of study of 20 blackberry accessions have been obtained. These accessions have different shoot growth forms and are considered to be promising for cultivation with winter covering in conditions of Orel region. It is shown that high frost and cold hardiness, a short period of vegetation and early ripening are priority directions of blackberry breeding for growing without covering in this region.
1. Agroclimatic reference book for Orel region (1960): Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat: 6-10.
3. Gruner L. A., Kuleshova O. V. (2014): Vegetation length and dynamics of blackberry shoot growth in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 42-49. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/4/56.pdf. (in Russian).
4. Kazakov I.V., Kichina V.V., Gruner L.A. (1999): Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel: 383-385. (in Russian).
5. Kichina V.V., Kazakov I.V., Gruner L.A. (1995): Raspberry and blackberry breeding. Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut breeding. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel, VNIISPK: 368-386. (in Russian).
6. Finn C.E, Strik B.C. (2014): Blackberry Cultivars for Oregon. Available at: http://berrygrape.org/files/caneberries/blackberry_cultivars.pdf.
7. Strik B. C., Finn C. E. (2011): Blackberry Productions Systems – a Worldwide Perspective. In: Proc. Xth Intl. Rubus and Ribes Symp. Acta Hortic. 946, 341-347. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.946.56
8. Strik B.C., Finn C.E., Clark J.R., Pilar Bañados M. (2008): Worldwide Production of Blackberries. In: Proc. IXth Intl. Rubus and Ribes Symp. Acta Hortic. 777, 209-218 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.777.31
Panteleeva E.I., Pugach V.A. (2015): Breeding of male varieties of sea buckthorn.Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 17-25. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/44.pdf
Male varieties Gnom and Aley had been selected and included to State Register. Flowering buds of both varieties are winter resistant (percentage of survived buds more than 76%), that results in high level of flower abundance (5.0 points). Pollen viability of diploid varieties is higher (62.9%) compare to triploid one, as well as pollen grains are more equal in shape. Influence of period of flowering of male and female plants on fruits set has been registered. Productivity of Prevoskhodnaya, Chuyskaya and Altayskaya varieties varies in the range of 50% depending on male variety.
1. Belyaeva L.F., Lenivtsev V.A., Filipova Yu.E. (1968): Differentiation of sea buckthorn generative buds and dynamics of carbohydrates in them. In: Proc. of A scientific session of the Novosibirsk State Pedagogical Institute. Botany-Zoology, 5: 26-30. (in Russian).
2. Buglova T.L. (1981): Breeding assessment of initial sea buckthorn genotypes and inheritance of basic economic and biological traits [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Leningrad. (in Russian).
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4. Gunin A.V., Oderova E.V. (2012): The assessment of the results of sea buckthorn hybridization depending on male component. In: Improvement assortment and propagation and cultivation technologies of horticultural crops in Siberia, Barnaul: 52-57. (in Russian).
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9. Panteleeva E.I. (2010): Sea buckthorn breeding and variety investigation. Barnaul, AGAU. (in Russian).
10. Potapov S.P., Borodachev M.N., Starikova A.Kh. (1986): The influence of pollinators on a mass of sea buckthorn fruits and seeds. In: State and prospects of sea buckthorn development in Nonchernozem area of RSFSR. Moscow, Nauka: 44-49. (in Russian).
11. Sankina A.S., Panteleeva E.I., Putov V.S., Kornienko T.F. (1997): Cytological study of breeding material of fruit crops (apple, sea buckthorn, plum). In: State and problems of the horticulture in Russia. Novosibirsk, 1:120-127. (in Russian).
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14. Albrecht H.J., Gerber J., Koch H.J., Wolf D. (1984): Erfahrungen beim Anbau von Sanddorn. Gartenbau. 1984, 31(8): 242-244.
15. Koch H.J. (1986): ‘Frugana’ und ‘Polmix 3’ – zwei neus Sandornsorte. Gartenbau,371(12).
PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF FRUIT CROPS
Golyshkina L. V., Krasova N. G., Galasheva A. M., Golyshkin L. V.
Golyshkina L.V., Krasova N.G., Galasheva A.M., Golyshkin L.V. (2015): The activity change of antioxidant ferment systems and peroxide oxidation of lipids in tissues of the developing ovary under the effect of low temperature in spring. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 26-36. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/45.pdf
The low temperature effect (-3‚5°C during 1,5 hour) on the activity of some antioxidant ferments and content of free proline, malone dialdehyde was studied in five apple varieties differing in ploidy from the VNIISPK collection: Antonovka Obyknovennaya, Imrus, Sinap Orlovsky, Rozhdestvenskoye and Yubilar during spring vegetation (in May). The study was fulfilled in dynamics in ovaries and fruits according to five phases from flower buds with weakly pulled out petals to a developing fruit, up to 3 gram in weight.
The investigations demonstrated that the varieties differed in ferment activity (superoxiddismutase, catalase and total peroxidase) and content of free proline, malone dialdehyde. The activity of peroxidase and catalase under the stress was displayed differently in studied varieties according to phases: in some varieties by higher activity at the phase of pulled out petals or lower activity at the phase of opened flowers after fertilization but sharp increase of peroxidase activity in Jubilar at the same phase. The catalase activity in all the studied varieties was higher in the developing embryos than in flower buds. The determination of superoxiddismutase activity showed insignificant variations within varieties under -3‚5°C during 1,5 hour. The same picture was displayed in the content of free proline. A sharp reduce of its concentration was noted in the developing fruit in all studied varieties. The content of malone dialdehyde changed towards the increase under the stress in phases of colored flower buds and opened flowers after fertilization. Triploid Jubilar actively responded to a temperature stress. Thus, the reaction of systems providing the protection against the effect of low temperatures in the studied apple varieties was different. The level of ferment activity and content of the studied metabolites depended on the apple variety and phase of ovary development.
1. Britikov E.A. (1975): Biological Importance of Proline. Moscow, Nauka: 41-66. (In Russian).
2. Golyshkina L.V., Galasheva A.M., Krasova N.G., Golyshkin L.V. (2012): Functional Characteristic of Apple Pollen under Lower Temperatures of Spring. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii (Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia), 34(1): 162-169. (In Russian).
3. Golyshkina L.V., Krasova N.G., Galasheva A.M. (2010): Activity and Polymorphism of Some Ferment Systems of Tissues of Apple Cultivars with Different Winter Hardiness. In: Proc. Intern. Conf. Biological basis of fruit and vegetable growing. Michurinsk-Naukograd: 101-106. (In Russian).
4. Grinblat A.I. (2007): A Method of Ferment Activity Determining. RF Patent 22939695, 20.February 2007. (In Russian).
5. Gudkovskiy V.A., Kashirskaya N.Ya., Tzukanova E.M. (2005): Stress of Fruit Plants. Voronezh, Kvarta. (In Russian).
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8. Koshkin E.I. (2010): Physiology of the Resistance of Agricultural Crops: course. Moscow, Drofa. (In Russian).
9. Krasova N.G., Ozherelieva Z.E., Golyshkina L.V., Makarkina M.A., Galasheva A.M. (2014): Winter Hardiness of Apple Varieties. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10. Leonchenko V.G., Evseyeva R.P., Zhbanova E.V., Cherenkova T.A. (2007): The Preliminary Selection of Promising Genotypes of Fruit Plants for Ecological Resistance and Biochemical Value of Fruit. Methodical recommendations. Michurinsk-Naukograd. (In Russian).
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14. Abassi N.A., Kushad M.M., Endress A.G. (1998): Active oxygen- scavenging enzymes activities in developing apple flowers and fruits. Scientia Horticulturae, 74(3): 183-194. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00077-6.
`5. Braybrook S.A., Harada J.J. (1994): LECs go crazy in embryo development. Trends in Plant Science, 13: 624-630. DOI:10.1016/j.tplants.2008.09.008.
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`8. Mitteler R. (2002): Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, and Stress Tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 7: 405-409. DOI: 10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02312-9.
19. Scalabrelli G., Viti R., Cinelli F. (1991): Changes in catalase activity and dormancy of apricot buds in response to chilling. Acta Horticulturae,293: 267-274. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1991.293.31
20. Wang S.Y., Jiao H.J., Faust M. (1991): Changes in the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase in apple buds during bud break induced by thidiazuron.Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 10(1-4): 33-39. DOI: 10.1007/BF02279308
Prudnikov P.S., Gulyaeva A.A. (2015): Features of hyperthermia effect on hormonal system and antioxidant status of Prunus Cerasus L. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 37-44. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/46.pdf
The article discusses the features of hyperthermia effect on the Prunus Cerasus L. hormonal system and antioxidant system after the example of Orlytza apricot developed at the All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding. It is shown that under high temperatures the accumulation of abscisic acid is enhanced in plant leaves and the level of indole-acetic acid is reduced. The specific change of the phytohormone content promotes the accumulation and activation of both macromolecular antioxidants and low molecular antioxidants. It has been determined that the activity of such antioxidants as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase is significantly increased under the hyperthermia effect as well as the content of proline becomes higher. The development of lipid peroxidation of membrane lipids is observed to be lowed on the background of changes in hormonal and antioxidant systems.
1. Baraboi V.A., Brekhman I.I., Golotin V.G., Kudryashov Yu.B. (1992): Lipid peroxidation and stress. Saint Petersburg, Nauka. (in Russian).
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4. Vlasov P.V., Mazin V.V., Turetskaya R.Kh., Guskov A.V., Komizerko E.I., Lozhnikova V.N., Yanina L.Ya., Kof E.M., Konopskaya L.N., Sharipov G.D., Filonova V.P., Kefeli V.I. (1979): A complex method of determining natural regulators of growth. Initial analysis of unripe corn seeds for activity of uncombined auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Fiziologiyarastenii (Plantphysiology),26(3): 648-655. (in Russian).
5. Gorbunov N.V., Volgarev A.N., Brailovskaya I.V. (1992): Activation of free-radical reactions and change of condition of the system of antioxidant protection in blood under toxic experimental flu infection. Byulleten Eksperimentalnoi Biologii i Meditsiny (Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine), 7: 42-44. (in Russian).
6. Dospekhov B. A. (1985): Methods of the field experiment (on the base of statistical processing of investigation results). Agropromizdat, Moscow. (in Russian).
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8.Lukatkin A.S. (2003): About development of injury in maize seedlings at sudden and gradual chilling. Selskokhozyaistvennaya biologiya (Agricultural Biology), 5: 63-68. (in Russian).
9.Orlova A.G. (2004): A role of indole-acetic acid in the development of reciprocal reaction of green and ethylened wheat plantlets on heat shock [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis]: Nizhny Novgorod, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod. (in Russian).
10. Polevoi V.V. (1982): Phytohormones . Leningrad, Leningrad State Univ. (in Russian).
11. Polesskaya O.G., Kashirina E.I., Alekhina N.D. (2004): Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in wheat leaves and roots as a function of nitrogen source and supply. Russianjournalofplantphysiology, 51(5): 615-620. DOI: 10.1023/B:RUPP.0000040746.66725.77.
12. Prudnikov P.S., Popkova A.A., Golyshkina L.V., Dzhigadlo E.N. (2014): Physiological and biochemical assessment of plum and apricot resistance to sress environmental factors. Uchenye zapiski Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya «Estestvennye, tekhnicheskie I meditsinskie nauki» (Scientific Notes of Orel State University. Series Natural, technical and medicalsciences), 3: 122-125. (in Russian).
13.Stalnaya I.D., Garishvili T.G. (1977): Method of MDA determination with the help of thiobarbituric acid. In: Orekhovich V.N. (ed.) Contemporary methods in biochemistry. Moscow, Medizina: 66-68. (in Russian).
14. Shevyakova E.I. (1983): Metabolism and a physiological role of proline in plants under water and salt stress. Fiziologiya rastenii (Plant Physiology), 30(4): 768-781. (in Russian).
15.Yakushkina N.I. (1983): Energetic exchange and growth of plants. In: Yakushkina N.I. (ed.) Features of hormonal regulations of metabolism processes and growth rates of plants. Moscow, MOPI: 3-11. (in Russian).
16. Alia S., Saradhi P.P., Mohanty P. (1997): Involvement of proline in protecting thylakoid membranes against free radical-induced photodamage. J. Photochem. Photobiol., 38: 253–257. doi:10.1016/S1011-1344(96)07470-2
17. Bates L.S., Waldren R.P., Teare I.D. (1973): Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207
18. Dat J., Vandenabeele S., Vranjva E. , van Montagu M., Inze D., van Breusegem F. (2000): Dual Action of the active Oxygen Species during Plant Stress Responses. Cell Mol. Live Sci., 57: 779-795.
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20. Guan L., Scandalios J.G. (1998): Effect of the plant growth regulation abscisic acid and high osmoticum on the developmental expression of the maize catalase genes. Physiologia Plantarum, 104: 413-422. DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3054.1998.1040317.x
21. Mitteler R. Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, and Stress Tolerance (2002): Trends Plant Sci., 7: 405-409. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02312-9
22. Thimann K.V. (1977): Hormone Action in the whole Life of Plants. Amherst. Universiti of Massachusetts Press. 448 p.
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Ozherelieva Z.E., Guliaeva A.A. (2015): Frost effect on resistance of cherry generative organs during flourification. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 45-51. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/47.pdf
The researches were performed in the laboratory of resistance physiology of fruit crops at the All Russian research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) in 2014…2015. Cherry cultivars developed at the VNIISPK were investigated. The resistance of cherry cultivars to spring frosts was determined by artificial freezing. Early in May, -2°C and -3°C frosts were modeled in a climatic chamber. It was determined that in flower buds and opened flowers the pistils perished from the frost while stamens remained undamaged. The resistance of generative organs in cherry cultivars studied to spring frost was identified as -2°C. Further temperature lowering intensified the damages of flowers and flower buds. The experiment allowed revealing the largest biological potential of resistance to spring frosts in Konkurentka and Shokoladnitsa.
1. Balakina Yu.K. (2007): Prospects of horticulture development in the RF Central Federal District. Sadovodstvo i vinogradarstvo (Horticulture and viticulture), 3: 2-3. (in Russian).
2. Dzhigadlo E.N., Kolesnikova A.F., Gulyaeva A.A. (2003): Novel stone fruit varieties of VNIISPK breeding. Sadovodstvo i vinogradarstvo (Horticulture and viticulture), 1: 18-20. (in Russian).
4. Kanshina M.V. (1998): Ecological resistance and productivity of cherry cultivars in Bryansk region. In: Abstr. Conf. The improvement of assortment and cultivation technology of stone fruit crops, Jul 14-17, 1998, Orel, VNIISPK: 82-84. (in Russian).
5. Kanshina M.V. Astakhov A.A. (2008): Adaptability of sour and sweet cherry cultivars in conditions of Bryansk region. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii (Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia), 20: 120-123. (in Russian).
7. Kolesnikova A.F. (2003): Sour and sweet cherry. Moscow, AST, Folio. (in Russian).
8. Krasova N.G., Ozhereleva Z.E., Galasheva A.M., Glazova N.M. (2009): Apple flower resistance to spring frosts. Vestnik OryelGAU, 6: 50-53. (in Russian).
9. Leonchenko V.G., Evseeva R.P., Zhbanova E.V., Cherenkova T.A. (2007): The preliminary selection of promising genotypes of fruit plants for ecological resistance and biochemical value of fruit (methodical recommendations). Michurinsk, VNIIGISPR. (in Russian).
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Salina E.S., Levgerova N.S., Sidorova I.A. (2015): The effect of phenolic compounds on consumer qualities of black currant jam. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 52-56. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/48.pdf
The influence of anthocyan and catechin contents on the organoleptic characteristics of jam was studied in 25 black currant genotypes. It was determined that in spite of the reliable dependence between the anthocyans content and estimation of jam appearance (r = +0.22*) there was just only a tendency of mark increase for appearance owing to higher content of anthocyans in jam since a value of the correlation coefficient was not large. There was a lack of reliable correlation between the catechin content in jam and taste estimation (r = +0.14). Besides catechin, the proportion of sugar and acid greatly influenced on jam taste.
1. Levgerova N.S. (2009): Scientific substantiation of raw-stuff orchard creation on a genetic potential basis of fruit crops [Agric. Sci. Doctoral Thesis]. Orel, Orel State Agrarian University. (in Russian).
2. Levgerova N.S., Leonchenko V.G. (1999): Technological evaluation of cultivars. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods of variety trials of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 168-178. (in Russian).
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7. Oszmianski J. Effects of Blackcurrant and Apple Mash Blending on the Phenolics Contents, Antioxidant Capacity, and Colour of Juices / J.Oszmianski, A.Woidylo // Czech Journal of Food Sciences (CJFS). – Vol. 27, 2009. – No. 5. – p. 338–351.
8. Vagiri M.R. Phenolic Compounds and Ascorbic Acid in Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L.) / Michael Rajeev Vagiri // Doctoral Thesis. – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Alnarp. – 2014. – 68 p.
The application of biotechnological methods in the up-to-date horticulture is under consideration. The peculiarities of the micro propagation of pome and berry crops are described relative to genetic features and nutrient medium composition. Principal possibility of using such methods as polyploidization in vitro conditions, callusogenesis and morphogenesis, embryo culture and collection creation of valuable forms is shown.
1. Belyakova L.V., Vysotskiy V.A., Alekseenko L.V. (2011): Eliciters application in clonal micropropagation of strawberry. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii (Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia), 26: 194-200. (in Russian).
2. Vysotskiy V.A. (2011): Biotechnological methods in up-to-date gardening. Sadovodstvo i vinogradarstvo (Horticulture and viticulture), 26: 3-10. (in Russian).
3. Dzhafarova V.E., Tashmatova L.V. (2010): Biotechnological methods in fruit breeding of VNIISPK. In: Improvement of assortment and cultivation technologies of fruit crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 70-72. (in Russian).
4. Dzhafarova V.E., Golyshkin L.V., Dolmatov E.A., Tashmatova L.V. (2013): Some feauters of apomictic plants Pyrus communis × Chaenomelis japonicain vitro conditions. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2013/1/56.pdf. (in Russian).
5. Dzafarova V.E. (2015): Estimation of propagation and inducing of polyploidy meristem and selections of Malus domestica Borkh. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1: 93-99. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/1/13.pdf. (in Russian).
6. Mariyakhina I.Ya., Polumordvinova I.V., Kokoreva V.A., Lukonina E.I. (1986): Biotechnology of obtaining fertile forms of interspecific onion hybrids on the basis of polyploidization in vitro. In: State and prospects of the development of agricultural biotechnology. Moscow: 86-91. (in Russian).
7. Matushkina O.V., Pronina I.N. (2008): Technology of clonal apple and pear micropropagation (methodical recommendations). Michurinsk-naukograd RF, VSTISP. (in Russian).
8. Savelev N.I., Oleynikova O.Ya., Van-Unkan N.Yu. (2011): Callogenesis and morphogenesis in fruit plant anthers in vitro.Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii (Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia), 26: 262 - 268. (in Russian).
9. Tashmatova L.V., Dzhafarova V.E. (2010): A method of pear grafting with microshoots in vitro. In: Improvement of assortment and cultivation technologies of fruit crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 228-229. (in Russian).
10. Tashmatova L.V. (2011): Continuous conservation of test-tubed plants of pear. Ñàäiâíèöòâî (Horticulture), 64. (in Russian).
11. Tashmatova L.V. Pear propagation and deposition in vitro.Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii (Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia), 26: 130-137. (in Russian).
12. Tashmatova L.V. (2013): Pear rooting and adaptation in culture in vitro. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2013/1/60.pdf. (in Russian).
13. Tashmatova L.V. (2013): Optimization of stages of pear clonal micropropagation. In: Selection, genetics and variety agrotechnics of fruit crop. Orel, VNIISPK: 53-60. (in Russian).
14. Tashmatova L.V., Gruner L.A., Matzneva O.V. (2014): Features of micro propagation of blackberries having different types of growth. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/4/58.pdf. (in Russian).
Dzhafarova V.E. (2015): Colchicine treatment of germinated seeds of apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 62-69. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/50.pdf
The results of colchicine treatment of apple germinated seeds are presented. The seeds of a series of apple cultivars obtained from open pollination were studied. The colchicine treatment of germinated seeds was carried out for the purpose of obtaining polyploidy plants. A spectrum of colchicine concentrations was empirically selected.
It was determined that greater colchicine concentration reduced a number of viable germinated seeds. Probably, high concentrations of colchicine blocked mitosis in rootlets to a greater degree.
Germinated seeds differently responded to colchicine owing to their unequal susceptibility to that antimitotic agent.
The sowing process of treated germinated seeds in vitro clearly demonstrated what happened with them after sowing out into the ground.
Only just 125 viable plants were grown from 840 germinated seeds treated with colchicine. 16 of them were attributed to polyploids according to their morphological traits.
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3. Bavtuto G.A. (1981): Creation of initial breeding apple material by means of induced polyploidy. In: Apple breeding in the USSR. Orel, NIISPK: 186-191. (in Russian).
4. Breslavets L.P. (1962): Polyploidy importance in changing traits in plants. In: Polyploidy in plants. Ìoscow, ANSSSR: 21-32. (inRussian).
5. Dzafarova V.E. (2015): Estimation of propagation and inducing of polyploidy meristem and selections of Malus domestica Borkh. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1: 93-99. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/1/13.pdf. (in Russian).
6. Eremin G.V., Kovaleva V.V. (1993): Use of induced polyploids of fruit stone plants as an initial material for breeding. In: Remote hybridization and polyploidy in fruit and berry breeding. Orel, VNIISPK: 19. (inRussian).
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8. Kopan V.P., Kopan K.N., Yareshchenko A.N., Kozulina Yu.B., Grebenyuk S.I., Korkhovoi V.I. (2003): Oligogenic breeding is a way of purposeful solving of breeding programs in fruit-growing. In: A role of varieties and new technologies in the intensive horticulture. Orel, VNIISPK: 167-169. (inRussian).
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Leonicheva E. V., Roeva T. A., Leonteva L. I., Vetrova O. A.
Leonicheva E.V., Roeva T.A., Leonteva L.I., Vetrova O.A. (2015): Peculiarities of agrochemical features of dark-grey forest soil in garden agrocenosis.Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 70-75. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/51.pdf
The influence of the relief and the orchard groundcover management systems on the soil chemical parameters was studied in the rows and row-spacing of the 20-year-old orchard under soil-and-climatic conditions of the southern Nechernozem zone.
It is shown that in the 20-year-old orchard on semi-dwarf intercalary stocks the row-spacing is a zone of the most intensive consumption of phosphorus and potassium. This is greatly displayed when the row-spacing soil lie autumn fallow. Herbs cover creation in row-spacing smoothes over differences in profile distribution of nutrient elements. Probably, it happens due to additional quantities of organic elements that fall into the soil under regular grass mowing in the row-spacing.
1. Kondakov A.K. (2007): Fertilizing of fruit trees, berry plants, nurseries and ornamental crops. Michurinsk, VNIIS. (in Russian).
2. Practice work on agrochemistry (2001): V.G. Mineyev (ed.). Moscow, MGU. (in Russian).
3. Trunov Yu.V. (2010): Mineral nutrition and fertilizing of apple trees. Michurinsk, VNIIS. (in Russian).
4. Fomenko T.G., Popova V.P., Pestova N.G., Chernikov E.A. (2014): Metodical approaches of estimation of parameters of soil fertility of garden fertilizer is applied locally using the cenosis and irrigation. Nauchnye trudy SKZNIISiV (Scientific publications of FSBSO NCRRIH&V), 6: 38-44. (in Russian).
5. Goh K.M., Pearson D.R., Daly M.J., (2001): Effects of apple orchard production systems on some important soil physical, chemical and biological quality parameters. Biological agriculture & horticulture, 18(3): 269-292. DOI:10.1080/01448765.2001.9754889
Emelyanova O.Yu., Masalova L.I., Firsov A.N. (2015): The evaluation of the gene pool of coniferous plants of arboretum of the All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK). Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 76-81. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/52.pdf
The coniferous plants are widely used in green building. However, not all their shapes and forms possess sufficient resistance to adverse biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The purpose of this work is to identify highly resistant species and decorative forms of conifers of arboretum at the All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding. Currently, 57 types and forms of conifers grow in the collection. 13 species and forms growing in the arboretum of our institute were selected as the objects of study. According to our research Juniperus sabina f. tamariscifolia Ait. and Pinus koraiensis Sieb.et Zucc. are the most resistant ones to pests and diseases. The most ornamental of these are Juniperus sabina f. tamariscifolia Ait., Pinus ðåuñå Gris., Pinus koraiensis Sieb.et Zucc. and Taxus baccata L. Their decorative qualities are maintained throughout the year in the absence of signs of aging. Taking into account all the studied factors in the experiment 3 species of coniferous plants are the most promising. They are Juniperus sabina f. tamariscifolia Ait., Pinus koraiensis Sieb.et Zucc.and Pinus ðåuñå Gris. These types can be recommended for use in green building in Central Russia.
1. Golovach A.G. (1980): Trees, shrubs and lianas of the Botany Garden of the USSR. Leningrad, Nauka. (in Russian).
2. Dubovitskaya O.Yu. (2014): Collection of herbal introducing plants of VNIISPK arboretum as a source of diversity of species for planting of greenery in settlements. In: Proc. Conf. Urgency of V.N. Khitrovos ideas in the investigation of biological diversity in Russia, Orel, Sept. 18-20, 2014: 60-63. (in Russian).
3. Dubovitskaya O.Yu., Masalova L.I. (2013): Prospects for expanding sustainable range of woody plants for landscape construction using exotic species of North American. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2013/4/10.pdf. (in Russian).
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5. Yurova G.S. Coniferous plants – to gardens and parks of Nechernozemie. In: Breeding, variety investigation, agrotechnics of fruit and berry crops, 10(2): 50-57. (in Russian).
6. Yurova G.S., Kalinicheva L.N. (1992): Promising species of coniferous plants for planting of greenery in settlements. In: Breeding and variety investigation of horticultural crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 136-148. (in Russian).