Zhivchikova, R.I., & Yakovleva, V.V. (2021). New plum variety Primorochka for the Russian Far East. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0401 (In Russian, English abstract). A new Chinese plum variety Primorochka was bred at the Fruit and Berry Experimental Station in Primorsky krai. The main purpose of plum breeding under the unique climatic conditions in the South of the Russian Far East is to create a new variety with a complex of economically and biologically valuable traits (cold resistance, resistance to diseases and pests, earliness, yield, fruit quality). Plum assortment, released in the region, comprises Chinese plum varieties, predominantly of the Far Eastern breeding, and includes three varieties bred at the Fruit and Berry Experimental Station of Primorsky krai: Antonina, Nadezhda Primorya, Sharovaya by L.G. Setkova. The main limitation of the local varieties is a high susceptibility rate to fungal diseases, which cause from 35 to 40% yield loss. The most dangerous one among them is brown rot (Monilia fructigena Honey). Hybridization with disease resistant cherry plum species can enhance plant immunity in new varieties. The research and experiments aiming to breed a new Chinese plum variety were carried out in 1986—2018. The variety Primorochka was bred according to the analytical selection technique based on open pollination (panmixia) of Prunus cerasifera Pissardiiby Chinese plum varieties. It is an early variety for universal use. The medium-height tree has a slightly spreading crown with medium density. Purple leaves distinctively characterize the variety during the whole growth season. The mean yield is 9.6 t/ha. The fruits are medium-sized with sweet-and-sour taste, the mean weight is 22 g, the skin color is dark-red with red pulp. The fruits contain 11.5% sugars, 1.4% acid, 0.8% carotene, 9.8 mg% vitamin C. The taste quality of the fresh fruits is 4.5 on a scale of 1 to 5, the taste quality of the fruit compote is 5. The variety is resistant to cold, Monilia fructigena Honey and Clasterosporium carpohilum Lev., not susceptible to red leaf spot disease. Variety Primorochka was submitted for the State testing in 2018.
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Krasova, N.G., Galasheva, A.M., & Lupin, Ì.V. (2021). Evaluation of technological methods for obtaining branched apple seedlings in the nursery. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 9-20. https://doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0402 (In Russian, English abstract). The results of long-term studies (2016...2021) on the evaluation of the use of mechanical techniques and chemical treatments to stimulate lateral branching of annual seedlings of the most promising modern apple cultivars are presented. The effectiveness of the agrotechnical method of growing seedlings with pinching the top of the growing shoot and removing the top 3 leaf blades when the seedling reaches 70...80 cm has been established. At the same time, the formation of 2.7 to 4.4 lateral branches (in control 0) was noted in the apple cultivars Bogatyr, Veteran, Sinap Orlovsky, Orlovskoye Polosatoye, Rozhdestvenskoye and Svezhest. The use of non-root treatments together with mechanical techniques had a different effect on the branching and quality indicators of apple seedlings. An increase in the number of lateral branches was noted: in Bogatyr and Rozhdestvenskoye - when treated with Epin solution and Rastvorin; in Veteran and Orlovskoye Polosatoye - when treated with Rastvorin; in Bogatyr - when treated with Urea, compared with the control variant, i.e. the same cultivars without chemical treatment against the background of pinching the top and removing 3 leaves of a growing seedling. Non-root treatment of annual seedlings with RAUaktiv at a concentration of 1 or 2% in variants with mechanical action significantly increased the number of lateral shoots to 5...6 in Solnyshko (control – 2.3) and to 3.5 in Veteran (control – 0) (LSDP≤0.05=0.6). The use of the Tornado preparation (concentration 0.0002%) together with mechanical methods of growth stimulation showed a significant increase in the formation of lateral branches. Imrus and Honeycrisp cultivars showed high activity in the formation of lateral branches under mechanical action and together with treatment with Aminozol and Yantarin solution. In these variants, 7.1...8.3 branches were noted. Imrus had the maximum number of lateral shoots when treated with Aminozol (8.7 with a control of 5.8).
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The purpose of this research was to estimate the changes of phosphorus content in apple fruits, leaves and one-year-old shoots as affected by top dressing with phosphorus-free fertilizers. The study was conducted with mature ‘Imrus’and‘Sinap orlovsky’ apple trees on intercalary stock 3–4–98 in 2013—2015 growing seasons. The experimental orchard is located in the forest-steppe zone of the Central Russian Upland (Oryol region). The soil of the orchard was loamy Haplic Luvisol with a high content of available phosphorus (100—200 mg/kg). The separate and combined foliar nutrient treatments with H3BO3 (0.1%), K2SO4 (0.3%) and CaCl2 (1%) were applied five times during the vegetation period. Leaf samples were collected in late July, fruit samples – at harvest. One-year-old shoots were collected twice every year: in January and in March. The phosphorus content in the fruit flesh of both cultivars was high (at least 15 mg/kg FW). The phosphorus content in the apple skin of ‘Imrus’was at least 30 mg / kg FW, and in the ‘Sinap orlovsky’ fruit skin – at least 70 mg/kg FW. The leaf phosphorus content varied within 0.50±0.07 % and 0.82±0.09 % DW for ‘Imrus’ and ‘Sinap orlovsky’ respectively. The highest phosphorus levels in fruits and leaves of both cultivars were observed in 2015 at lowest yield load and drought conditions. Foliar treatments with phosphorus-free compounds reduced the content of this element in fruits and shoots of ‘Imrus’, while the response of ‘Sinap orlovsky’ was opposite. With a high level of soil phosphorus, the effect of foliar fertilizing on the phosphorus content in the leaves of both cultivars was weak.