Sedov, E.N., Yanchuk, T.V., & Korneeva, S.A. (2021). The best apple cultivars created in VNIISPK for morden gardening. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 1-13. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2021_0201 The results of apple tree breeding are summarized for 65 years, the improvement of breeding methods is shown. If in the first years of apple breeding, the repeated hybridization and geographically distant crosses were the main methods, then since 1970 the method of polyploid crosses of the 2x × 4x type has been widely used; since 1977 the work has been launched to create scab-immune cultivars, and since 1984 the work has been intensively carried out to create columnar apple cultivars. The intensive work in various areas of breeding has shown that in order to create modern apple cultivars that meet the basic requirements of production, well-trained interdisciplinary teams are needed, which, in addition to breeders, include specialists of many profiles - geneticists, biochemists, physiologists, cytoembryologists, phytopathologists and other specialties. It is possible to create modern competitive cultivars adaptive to local natural conditions only if highly qualified specialists in these areas are available. The article gives brief economic and biological characteristics of the 15 best, in our opinion, apple cultivars created at VNIISPK for 65 years. These include 3 summer cultivars - Avgusta, Maslovskoye and Yablochny Spas, 3 autumn cultivars - Orlovskoye Polosatoye, Pamyat Isaeva and Solnyshko, 6 winter cultivars – Alexandr Boyko, Venyaminovskoye, Imrus, Ministr Kiselyov, Priokskoye, Rozhdestvenskoye and 3 late winter cultivars - Veteran, Synap Orlovsky and Svezhest. A number of VNIISPK breeding cultivars already occupy large areas of orchards and are included in the State Register in several regions of Russia. For example, Venyaminovskoye, Veteran, Rozhdestvenskoye and Sinap Orlovsky are included in the State Register for 4 regions of Russia; Kandil Orlovsky, Kulikovskoye, Orlik, Orlovskoye Polosatoye are included in the State Register for three regions of Russia; Solnyshko and Yablochny Spas are included in two regions of Russia. A number of apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding are already being widely introduced in the Republic of Belarus: Veteran, Imrus, Sinap Orlovsky and Jubilar. Specialists of large orchard farms and amateur gardeners in Russia have the opportunity to choose for themselves the apple cultivars described in this article for their gardens, taking into account their conditions.
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11.Shidakov, R.S., & Khalilov, B.H. (2016). Intensification of horticulture on the basis of columnar varieties. In Innovative development of agrarian science and education: collection of scientific works: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 648-652). Dagestan State Agrarian University. (In Russian).
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13.Univer, T., & Ikase, L. (2021). Breeding apple scab resistant cultivars in Estonia. Acta Horticulturae, 1307, 7-12. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1307.2
14.Vávra, R., Vejl, P., & Blazek, J. (2021). Growth characteristics of columnar apple tree genotypes. Acta Horticulturae, 1307, 83-90. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1307.13
Rachenko, M.A., Kiseleva, E.N., Kamyshova, L.E., & Rachenko, A.M. (2021). Selection evaluation of frozen raspberry fruits by biochemical parameters in the conditions of the Cisbaikalia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 14-26. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2021_0202 The article provides a comparative assessment of the biochemical composition of primocane- and traditionally-fruiting raspberry fruits. The biochemical composition of primocane-fruiting raspberry fruits of different ripening periods (summer and autumn) is compared. Much attention is paid to the content of: sugars, vitamins C, A, B1, B2, E and PP, as well as microelements. The research objects were raspberry assortment fruits (varieties and selected forms) from the collection site of Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Irkutsk, Russia) and the farm enterprise (Irkutsk region, Russia). Fruits of traditionally-fruiting European red raspberry varieties (Kolokolchik and Patritsiya) were used as the control. Fruits of primocane-fruiting European red raspberry varieties (Yevraziya, Pingvin, Zolotyye kupola, Oranzhevoye chudo, Brilliantovaya, Rubinovoye ozherelye, Shapka Monomakha, Gerakl, Zhar ptitsa, Bryanskoye divo, and Nedosyagayemaya) as well as forms 32-151-1, 37-15 -4, 1-220-1, 7-X-11, 16-136-6 were used as test samples. The experiments were carried out according to the generally accepted program and methodology for the variety study of fruit, berry and nut crops. Sugars were determined using the SHIMADZU liquid chromatograph. Vitamins were determined using the Agilent G 1322 liquid chromatograph. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption using the SHIMADZU AA-7000 spectrophotometer. When comparing the research results, a regularity between the fructose content and the organoleptic assessment of primocane-fruiting raspberry fruits of the autumn harvest was noted. The varieties relatively high in sugar (Rubinovoye ozherelye, Nedosyagayemaya, and forms 7-X-11) and one with minimal sugar content (Yevraziya) were registered. The varieties with a high content of vitamin C in fruits were identified: Brilliantovaya, Rubinovoye ozherelye, forms 37-15-4 and 1-220-1. Such varieties as Zhar ptitsa, Rubinovoye ozherelye, Pingvin, Gerakl, Oranzhevoye chudo, Kolokolchik, and form 16-136 were registered as sources of microelements. According to the assessment results, it was noted that European red raspberry fruits did not stand out from most primocane-fruiting raspberry varieties in terms of the content of vitamins and sugars. The content of vitamin C in fruits of most primocane-fruiting raspberry varieties differed slightly in terms of the harvest time. To select the best parental form in the breeding of a new adaptive variety for the southern Cisbaikalia, it is important to take into account varieties with a high nutritional value of fruits: Zhar ptitsa (high concentration of three microelements, sucrose and vitamins A, B1, B2, E, PP); Nedosyagayemaya (high concentration of three microelements, fructose, glucose and vitamin A); Rubinovoye ozherelye (high concentration of three microelements, fructose, sucrose and vitamin C).
1.Akimov, M.Yu., Bessonov, V.V., Kodentsova, V.M., Eller, K.I., Vrzhesinskaya, O.A., Beketova, N.A., Kosheleva, O.V., Bogachuk, M.N., Malinkin, A.D., Makarenko, M.A., Shevyakova, L.V., Perova, I.B., Rylina, E.V., Makarov, V.N., Zhidekhina, T.V., Koltsov, V.A., Yushkov, A.N., Novotortsev, A.A., Bryksin, D.M., & Khromov, N.V. (2020). Biological value of fruits and berries of Russian production. Problems of Nutrition, 89(4), 220-232. https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10055 (In Russian, English abstract).
2.Atroshchenko, G.P. & Shcherbakova, G.V. (2013). Economic and biological assessment of varieties of remontant raspberries in the conditions of the Leningrad region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 1-5. https://journal-vniispk.ru/pdf/2013/4/3.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
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5.National Standards of the Russian Federation (2010). Fruit and vegetable products. Method for determination of vitamin PP (niacin) content (GOST R 50479-93). Standartinform. (In Russian).
6.National Standards of the Russian Federation (2013). Functional food products. Method of vitamin E determination (GOST R 54634-2011). Standartinform. (In Russian).
7.National Standards of the Russian Federation (2012). Foodstuffs – Determination of vitamin C by HPLC (IDT) (GOST R EN 14130-2010). Standartinform. (In Russian).
8.Interstate Standard (2018). Honey. Method for determination of sugars (GOST 32167-2013). Standartinform. (In Russian).
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10.Interstate Standard (2010). Vegetable feeds. Methods for determination of manganese (GOST 27997-88). Standartinform. (In Russian).
11.Evdokimenko, S.N., Nikulin, A.F., & Bokhan, I.A. (2008). Estimation of kinds of raspberry on biochemical indexes of berries. Vestnik of the Bryansk State Agricultural Academy, 3, 1-5. (In Russian, English abstract).
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13.Kiseleva, E.N., Rachenko, M.A., Rachenko, A.M., & Kamyshova, L.E. (2020). Production and biological evaluation of varieties of remontant raspberry in the conditions of the South of Pre-Baikal region. Vestnik IrGSHA, 101, 31-40. https://doi.org/10.51215/1999-3765-2020-101-31-40 (In Russian, English abstract).
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21.Chugunova, O.V., Zavorokhina, N.V., & Vyatkin, A.V. (2019). Research of antioxidant activity and its changes during storage of fruit and berry raw materials of the Sverdlovsk region. Agrarian Bulletin of the Urals, 11, 59-65. https://doi.org/10.32417/article_5dcd861e8e0053.57240026 (In Russian, English abstract).
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23.Yanchuk, T.V., & Makarkina, M.A. (2014). Effect of meteorological conditions on sugar and organic acids accumulation in black currant berries during the vegetative period. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 62-69. https://journal-vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/2/25.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
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Firsov A.N., Masalova L.I., Emelyanova O.Yu., Makarkina M.A.
Firsov, A.N., Masalova, L.I., Emelyanova, O.Yu., & Makarkina, M.A. (2021). The aspects of introduction Picea canadensis Britt. in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 27-38. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2021_0203
The influence of negative factors of urbanized territories leads very often to the weakening of vegetation, the damaging by diseases and pests, the loss of their biological resistance and a decrease their decorative effect. At the same time, saving wood plants ex situ, including, in introduction conditions, is important especially. The purpose of researches – is extension of assortment of resistant decorative tree species for landscaping and medicinal gardens at sanatoriums, rest homes, hospitals, schools and private estates due to introduction of PiceaCanadensis and her form - P. canadensis f. conica in Orel region. The research was conducted on the basis of the VNIISPK bioresource collection from 2012 to 2020. (the content of biologically active substances in 2014...2015). The objects of research tolerate well to unfavorable conditions of the winter period and the rhythms of seasonal development, respond to the climatic conditions of the Orel region. The pests and diseases were not noted on P. canadensis f. conica. On P. Canadensis monoecious hermes (Sacchiphantes abietis (L.), Adelges laricis (Vall.) and A. Tardus (Dreyf.)), sooty fungus of needles (Apiosporium, Antennaria, Limacinia, Triposporiumè äð.) and the shute ordinary of the Picea (Lophodermium macrosporum (Hart.) Rehm.) were noted. The objects of the research, having evergreen needles, save decorative effect throughout the year. Small bursts of decorative effect were observed in May and June: the growth of young bluish needles (P. canadensisè P. canadensis f. conica) and the red color of cones at the beginning of their growth (P. canadensis). On the content all the biologically active substances, which were studied, P. canadensis f. conica surpasses the original species of P. canadensis, with the exception of the amount of carotenoids of needles. Evaluation of P. canadensis and its form in order to increase the assortment of resistant decorative tree species showed that P. canadensis f. conica was the most prospective for integrated use in landscaping of the Orel region, including as part of medicinal gardens at sanatoriums, rest homes, hospitals, schools and private estates. It is recommended for single and group plantings in small squares and gardens, for growing in containers on roofs and terraces, for decorating rocky gardens.
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