Sedov, E.N., Serova, Z.M., Yanchuk, T.V., & Korneeva, S.A. (2018). New apple cultivars – a grateful memory to Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 1-9. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10401 (In Russian, English abstract). In memory of the great countryman writer Ivan Turgenev VNIISPK created three apple cultivars: Bezhin Lug, Turgenevskoye and Spasskoye. Bezhin Lug is a triploid cultivar of winter maturing that was created from the crossing of Severny Sinap × Wealthy tetraplod in 1984. In 2010 the cultivar was included in the State Register in the Central Chernozem region. Trees are large, fast-growing with a rounded crown. Fruits are of 150 g weight, oblong, broad-ribbed, with a smooth surface, beveled. Cover color on half of the fruit is in the form of a blurred crimson blush. Fruit pulp is greenish, tender and juicy. The appearance of the fruit is estimated at 4.4 points, the taste – 4.3 points. The cultivar is resistant to scab, regularly bears highly marketable fruit.Turgenevskoye is a triploid winter cultivar, resistant to scab and created from [18-53-22 (Skryzhapel × OR18T13) × Wealthy tetraploid]. The trees are moderately vigorous with a rounded crown of moderate dense. The fruits are of above average weight (180 g), strongly flattened. Cover color on half of the fruit is blurred, brownish-red. Fruit pulp is greenish, dense with sour-sweet taste. The appearance of the fruit is estimated at 4.4 points, the taste – 4.3 points. In 2010 the cultivar was accepted on state test. It is characterized by high productivity, regular fruit-bearing, scab resistance and product quality and taste of the fruit. Spasskoye is a scab immune triploid summer apple cultivar (Redfree × Papirovka triploid). In 2009 the cultivars was accepted on state test. The trees are moderately vigorous with a rounded crown of moderate dense. The fruits are of above average weight (170 g). Cover color on the less part of the fruit is in the form of red stripes and speckles. Fruit pulp is greenish, dense and juicy. The appearance and taste of the fruit is estimated at 4.4 points. The harvest fruit ripeness in the Orel region comes on August 10—12, while the consumer period lasts until the second half of September.
2.Sedov, E.N., KalininaI.P. & Smykov, V.K. (1995). Apple breeding. In E.N. Sedov (ed.) Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding (pp. 159–200). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G., Zhdanov V.V., Dolmatov E.A. & Mozhar N.V. (1999). Pip crops (apple, pear, common quince). In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 253–255). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4.Saveliev, N.I. (1999). Genetic principles of apple breeding. Michurinsk: VNIIGISPR. (In Russian).
5.Savelieva, N.N. (2016). Biological and Genetic Characteristics of Apple and Breeding of Scab-Immune and Columnar Varieties. Michurinsk: VNIIGISPR. (In Russian).
6.Sedov, E.N. (2011). Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract and conclusion).
7.Sedov, E.N., Serova, Z.M., Yanchuk, T.V. et al. (2018). The best apple cultivars of the Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (popularization of breeding achievements). Orel: VNIISPK. 62 p. (In Russian).
8.Sedov, E.N., Sedysheva, G.A., Makarkina, M.A., Levgerova, N.S., Serova, Z.M., Korneyeva, S.A., Gorbacheva, N.G., Salina, E.S., Yanchuk, T.V., Pikunova, A.V., & Ozherelieva, Z.E. (2015). The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian. English abstract and conclusion).
9.Sedysheva, G.A., Sedov, E.N., Gorbacheva, N.G., Serova, Z.M., & Melnik, S.A. (2016). The development of tetraploid apple cultivars and breeding value of heteroploid crossings of different types. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 3, 129-132. (In Russian. English abstract).
10.Ulyanovskaya, E.V., Bogdanovich, T.V., Suprun, I.I., & Tokmakov, S.V. (2018). An integrated approach to the selection of apple trees. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 5(1), 139-141. (In Russian. English abstract).
DolmatovE.A., KornilovB.B., KhrykinaT.A. (2018). Rowth rate of pear seedlings with monogenic deterministic dwarfism. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 10-16. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10402 (In Russian, English abstract). The article presents the results of the study of 9 hybrid pear generations: Chu-huan × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; Moskovsky Shar × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; Osennyaya vkusnaya × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; 24-10 × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; 15-2-36 × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; Permyachka × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; DK-2 × Ploschanskaya; Alaya × DK-2; Pamyati Yakovleva × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes. The analysis of the growth rate of 250 9-year-old seedlings heterozygous by dwarfism gene (gene D) indicates that the average height of seedlings was 157 cm, the range of variation – 240 cm (from 40 to 280 cm). 87.6% of seedlings had the height from 101 to 220 cm. At the same time, depending on the maternal forms, these indicators were largely shifted to a larger or smaller side, depending on the combinations of crossing (Chu-huan × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes and 24-10 × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes). For example, the average height of seedlings was 145 cm in the family Chu-huan × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes; 86.1% of seedlings had the height from 101 to 220 cm, while in the family 24-10 × pollen mixture of dwarf genotypes the average height of seedlings was 176 cm; 87% of seedlings had the height from 120 to 220 cm. The scope of variation varied from 40 to 260 cm and from 81 to 280 cm, respectively. This opens up wide opportunities for selecting genotypes by plant height.
1.Burmistrov, L.A. (1996). Advances of the world pear breeding in 1980-1990 and VIR introduction of new cultivars. In Problems of initial material assessment and selection of parent pairs in fruit plant breeding: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 88-91). Michurinsk. (In Russian).
2.Dolmatov, E.A., Kachalkin, M.V., & Sidorov, A.V. (2008). Breeding of pears with monogenic determinate dwarfism. In Problems of horticultural ecology and cultivar adaptivity in the modern horticulture of Russia (pp. 65-66). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Dolmatov, E.A., Kachalkin, M.V., & Sidorov, A.V. (2010). Prospects of breeding of pears with monogenic determinate dwarfism. In The development of I.V. Michurins scientific heritage on genetics and fruit breeding: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 124-126). Michurinsk: VNIIGISPR. (In Russian).
4.Dolmatov, E.A., Sidorov, A.V., & Kachalkin, M.V. (2009). The results of the work at VNIISPK for mutant gene D transfer (NainVert) into pear genotypes of different origin. In Breeding, genetics and variety agrotechnics of fruit crops (pp. 49-52). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Dolmatov, E.A., Kachalkin, M.V., Sidorov, A.V., & Khrykina, T.A. (2010). Preliminary results of pear breeding with monogenically determinated dwarfing pattern. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 7-8. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Dolmatov, E.A., Kachalkin, M.V., Sidorov, A.V., & Khrykina, T.A. (2014). Prospects of using pear forms bearing D gene in breeding of dwarf varieties. In Breeding, genetics and variety agrotechnics of fruit crops (pp. 162-170). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Dolmatov, E.A., Kachalkin, M.V., Sidorov, A.V., & Khrykina, T.A. (2014). Prospects of breeding of dwarf pear varieties. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 1-9. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/1/2.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Sedov, E.N. (1977). Pear breeding in the Central Zone of RSFSR. Orel: Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
Golyaeva, O.D., Kalinina, O.V., & Panfilova, O.V. (2018). The inheritance of long-racemose by hybrid seedles of currant red from targeted crossing. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 17-22. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10403 (In Russian, English abstract).
The research was carried out in 2017—2018, in the selection area of the VNIISPK under the Program and methods of variety study of fruit, berry and nut crops (Orel, 1999). According to this method, the following ranking of seedlings along the length of the hand was used (taking into account the petiole of the hand): very short – up to 5 cm, short – 6—8 cm, medium – 9—10 cm, long – 10.1…12.0 cm, very long more than 12 cm. The object of the study was 66 hybrid seedlings of the VNIIPK selection of the 2466 breeding family (Belaya Potapenko × OS 1426-21-80). The purpose of the work is to evaluate the hybrid family according to the genetic potential of long-racemose development, as an important economically valuable characteristic. In the combination of the Beta Potapenko variety crossing, which has a short brush with a long-bush OS 1426-21-80, there is an intergrade inheritance of the brush length with evasion into the best paternal form. The low value of the maximum degree of transgression and frequency of occurrence of transgressive seedlings along the length of the brush can be explained by the high level of this trait in the paternal OS 1426-21-80. In the hybrid progeny, a wide range of variation of this characteristic is traced from 4 to 15 cm. Depending on the conditions of the year, 24.2…37.9% of long-leaf seedlings were splintered, which confirms the value of OS 1426-21-80 for use in breeding for the improvement of this economic valuable characteristic. According to the results of the phenotypic evaluation of the hybrid family, it was found out that there are seedlings which have a constant length of a raceme regardless of the weather conditions over the years, which is a necessary property for the varietal form. For further study distinguished transgressive seedlings as new sources of long-racemose.
2.Golyaeva, O.D. (2010). Breeding estimation of red currant hybrid families. Agricultural Biololgy, 5, 27-30. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Golyaeva, O.D., & Panfilova, O.V. (2015). Creation of sources and donors of economically valuable red currants traits. Vestnik OrelGAU, 6, 29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.15217/issn1990-3618.2015.6.29
4.Dzuraeva, F.K., Ivanova, E.A., & Mursalimova, G.R. (2014). Potential of productivity and biochemical composition of red currant in the conditions of Orenburg region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 39, 71-75. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Kichina, V.V. (1984). Berry crop genetics and breeding. Moscow: Kolos. (In Russian).
7.Knyazev, S.D. & Bayanova, L.V. (1999). Currants, gooseberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 351-373). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8.Sorokopudov, V.N., Solovieva, A.E., & Smirnov, A.S. (2005). Red currant in the forest-steppe of Priobie. Novosibirsk: AGRO-Sibrea. (In Russian).
Kuleshova, O.V., & Gruner, L.A. (2018). Weather factors that reduce blackberry winter hardiness under winter shelter. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 23-31. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10404 (In Russian, English abstract). Studies were carried out in the experimental plot of the VNIISPK department of berry crop breeding and variety investigation in 2014—2018. Blackberry varieties and selections, the representatives of different morphological groups, i.e. erected, trailing and semi-erected/semi-trailing, were studied. Taking into account low winter hardiness of the crop, the winter shelter of plants with a white synthetic covering material with a density of 60 mg/m2 in one layer was used, laying it on top of the trellis with the binding of shoots to it. Minimum thermometers were placed under cover to fix the lowest winter temperatures. Plants were uncovered in spring (April) after the onset of stable positive temperatures. As a result, it was determined that weather conditions of some years in the Chernozem region can significantly differ by hydrothermal indices from average data for many years, which affects the degree of blackberry resistance to winter stress-factors in different years. The following factors had a significant negative impact on the quality of blackberry wintering in the Orel region in the years of study : low negative temperatures late in winter and early in spring during the during the end of the organic dormancy period; the abundance of precipitation at the end of summer, causing prolonged growth and non-aging shoots of substitution. Using of winter shelter of blackberry plants with a white synthetic covering material with a density of 60 g/m2 in one layer well protects plants from significant freezing, and from other negative factors of the winter period. In the case of incomplete growth processes by autumn, a double layer of covering material of the specified density should be used.
1.Anonymous (1960). Agroclimatic reference book for Orel region (pp. 6-10). Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat. (In Russian).
2.Gruner, L.A. (2014). Blackberries. In E.N. Sedov & L.A. Gruner (Eds.), Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops (Vol. 5, pp. 300-308). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Gruner, L.A. (1986). Blackberry winter hardiness in the foothill area of the Caucasus. Bulletin of applied botany, genetics and plant breeding, 106, pp. 85-86. (In Russian).
4.Gruner, L.A. & Kuleshova, O.V. (2017). Blackberry winter hardiness with using winter covering and tur retardant in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 1-9. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2017-00020 (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Kazakov, I.V., Gruner, L.A. & Kichina, V.V. (1999). Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 374–395). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
6.Yakimov, V.V. (2010). Blackberry in Russia. Chelyabinsk: NGO “Garden and vegetable garden”. (In Russian).
7.Barney, D.L., Colt, M., Robbins, J.A. & Wiese, M. (1999). Growing Raspberries and Blackberries in Inland Northwest. Idaho: University of Idaho. Retrieved from: https://ru.scribd.com/document/314778867.
8.Clark, J.R., & Finn, C.E. (2011). Blackberry breeding and genetics. Fruit, vegetable and cereal science and biotechnology, 5(1), 27-43.
9.Finn, C.E., & Strik, B.C. (2014). Blackberry Cultivars for Oregon. Retrieved from: http://berrygrape.org/files/caneberries/blackberry_cultivars.pdf.
10.Finn, C.E., & Clark, J.R. (2011). Emergence of blackberry as a world crop. Chronica Horticulturae, 51(3), 13-18.
11.Strik, B.C., Finn, C.E., Clark, J.R., & Banados M.P. (2008). Worldwide Production of Blackberries. Acta Horticulturae, 777, 209-218. https:/doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.777.31
Shakhov, V.V., Tashmatova, L.V., Matzneva, O.V., & Khromova, T.M. (2018).The effectiveness of sterilizing agents in the introduction of cherry varieties to in vitro culture. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 32-37. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10405 (In Russian, English abstract).
Healing techniques using culture isolated apexes in vitro are often use for fruit and berry crops. Preparation of explants for subsequent introduction into culture is one of the important factors of successful clonal micropropagation. A prerequisite for the introduction of the starting material into the culture in vitro is its sterilization, therefore, for the disinfection of primary explants, surface treatment is carried out. It is necessary to select certain types of sterilizing agents that would not damage them and provide maximum sterility. In this regard, the aim of our research was to study the effectiveness of sterilizing agents at the stage of introduction of cherry varieties into the culture in vitro. This paper presents the results on the effectiveness of sterilizing substances. The sterilizing agents: 0.1% mertiolate solution, 12% hydrogen peroxide solution and a solution of Belizna (sodium hypochlorite with an active chlorine content of 95.2%) in a ratio of 1:2 are used in the preparation of the starting material for the introduction of cherry culture in vitro. The objects of the study were varieties of cherries: Rovesnica, Turgenevka, Novella, Bystrinka, Livenskaya, Orlica, Podarok uchitelyam, Businka. The starting material was explants isolated from the apical and lateral buds with annual shoots in the phase of the beginning of the exit from rest (March). Before the introduction of the shoots were placed on regrowth. The number of viable, infected and dead explants had counted after 3 weeks of cultivation since planting. It was found that the studied varieties of cherries using a solution of mertiolate had virtually no dead plants (0—1%). The lowest number of infected explants when treated with a solution of Belizna (sodium hypochlorite with an active chlorine content of 95.2%) was noted in the variety Podarok uchitelyam (3%), the largest – in the variety Novella (47%). The varieties for which the application of all the three sterilizing agents provided the greatest positive effect is the varieties Podarok uchitelyam and Orlica. The study revealed the most suitable sterilizer for all studied varieties – 0.1 % solution of mertiolate.
1.Lutova, L.A. (2003). Biotechnology of higher plants. Saint-Petersburg: Publishing house of St. Petersburg University. (In Russian).
2.Vysotskiy, V.A. (2006). Biotechnological methods in up-to-date gardening. Horticulture and viticulture, 2, 2-3. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Dzhigadlo, E.N., Dzhigadlo, M.I., & Golyshkina, L.V. (2005). Methodical recommendations for using biotechnological methods in work with fruit, berry and ornamental crops. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4.Butenko, R.G. (1964). Culture of isolated tissues and physiology of plant morphogenesis. Moscow: Science. (In Russian).
5.Vechernina, N.A. (2004). Methods of biotechnology in selection, reproduction and preservation of plant gene pool. Barnaul: Publishing house of Altai state University. (In Russian).
6.Kataeva, N.V., & Butenko R.G. (1983). Clonal micropropagation of plants. Moscow: Science. (In Russian).
7.Kataeva, N.V., & Avetisov, V.A. (1981). Clonal reproduction of plants in tissue culture. Plant cell culture, 137-149. (In Russian).
8.Kukharchik, N.V., Kastritskaya, M.S., Semenas, S.E, Kolbanova, E.V., Krasinskaya, T.A., Volosevich, N.N., Solovei, O.V., Zmushko, A.A., Bozhidai, T.N., Rundya, A.P., & Malinovskaya, A.M. (2016). Reproduction of fruit and berry plants in culture in vitro. Minsk: Belaruskaya navuka. (In Russian).
9.Kashin, V.I. (Ed.) (2001). Technological process of obtaining virus-free planting material of fruit and berry crops. Moscow: VSTISP. (In Russian).
Khromova, T.M., Shakhov, V.V., Tashmatova, L.V., & Mazneva, O.V. (2018). The effectiveness of the initiation of culture in vitro of varieties of black currant (Ribes Nigrum L.) of VNIISPK breeding. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 38-45. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10406 (In Russian, English abstract). The stage of initiation or introduction into culture in vitro is an important stage of micropropagation. The deliverance of plant material from the sources of microbiological contamination of the nutrient medium and obtaining reliable regeneration of isolated explants are the one of the most important conditions for the success of this stage. The results of studies on the introduction of black currants into the culture in vitro in summer and autumn has been presented in this article, and the effectiveness of the use of various sterilizing substances (0.1% solution of sulema and 0.1% solution of mertiolate) also has been considered. Varieties of black current of VNIISPK breeding: Azhurnaya, Orlovskaya serenada, Ocharovanie, Chudnoe mgnovenie are promising the objects of research. The cultivation was performed on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium with the addition of 6-BAP in a concentration of 0.5 mg/l, ascorbic acid 10 mg/l, triple the number of chelate of iron. pH of the medium 6.0.The highest survival rate was observed for varieties Azhurnaya (96.2%), Ocharovanie (96.2%) and Chudnoe mgnovenie (98.0%). It is noted that the survival rate of explants is influenced by varietal characteristics, the type of sterilizing agent and the period of introduction into the culture. The study of the effectiveness of the use of sterilizing agents showed that the yield of uninfected explants is higher at use 0.1% solution of sulema. The yield of viable explants is higher at use 0.1% mertiolate solution. The introduction to the culture can be carried out both in summer and in autumn using both sterilizers for varieties of Azhurnaya and Ocharovanie. The introduction to the culture in the autumn with the use of both sterilizers and in the summer with use of 0.1% sulema is recommended for variety Orlovskaya Serenada. The use of 0.1% solution of mertiolate in the summer period have been recommended for variety Chudnoe mgnovenie.
1.Vysotsky, V.A. (2011). Biotechnological methods in contemporary horticulture. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 26, 3-10. (In Russian, English abstract).
2.Dzhigadlo, E.N., Dzhigadlo, M.I. & Golyshkina, L.V. (2005). Methodical recommendations for using biotechnological methods in work with fruit, berry and ornamental crops. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Kolbanova, E.V., & Kukharchik, N.V. (2011). Clonal micropropagation of black current variety Sanuta. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 26, 222-229. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Kukharchik, N.V., Kastritskaya, M.S., Semenas, S.E, Kolbanova, E.V., Krasinskaya, T.A., Volosevich, N.N., Solovei, O.V., Zmushko, A.A., Bozhidai, T.N., Rundya, A.P. & Malinovskaya, A.M. (2016). Reproduction of fruit and berry plants in culture in vitro. Minsk: Belaruskaya navuka. (In Russian)..
5.Matzneva, O.V., Tashmatova, L.V., & Shakhov, V.V. (2018). Efficiency of using sterilizing agents for strawberry explants. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 5(1), 71-73. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Orazbaeva, G.K., Khasanov, V.T., Iskakov, R.A., & Shvidchenko, V.K. (2012). Clonal reproduction of black currant plants (Ribes nigrum L.) in vitro. The bulletin of science of S. Seifullin Kazakh Agrotechnical University, 1(72), 115-124. (In Russian).
7.Semenas, S.E., & Kukharchik, N.V. (2000). Methods of micropropagation of strawberry cultivars. Fruit growing, 13, 138-145. (In Russian).
8.Skovorodnikov, D.N., & Sazonov, F.F. (2011). Features of clonal micropropagation of black currant. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 26, 396-400. (In Russian, English abstract).
9.Shakhov, V.V., Tashmatova, L.V., & Matzneva, O.V. (2017). Comparative characteristic of timing of black currant explant introduction into culture in vitro. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, ¹4, 102-105. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2017-00039 (In Russian, English abstract).
10.Shevelukha, V.S. (Ed.) (1998). Agricultural biotechnology. Moscow: High School. (In Russian)
Nasonova, G.V., & Gulyaeva, A.A. (2018). The assessment of the efficiency of different fungicides against brown rot of cherries. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 46-53. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10407 (In Russian, English abstract). Studies were carried out in 2017—2018 in VNIISPK cherry orchards planted in 2005 and 2010. The aim of the research was to assess the damage of cherry shoots by the causative agent of the disease and to study the effectiveness of fungicides in the plant – pathogen – drug system in the laboratory. The field and laboratory methods were used according to the common methodology. The preliminary assessment of effect of fungicides against the pathogen agent of Monilia cinerea Bon. was made on 5 cherry varieties of the middle dates of ripening. Data for testing fungicide activity of the drugs Delan, VG (700 g/kg), Medeya (50+30 g/l), Khorus, VDG (750 g/kg) and Phytolavin (32 g/l) are given in this paper. The intensive development of the pathogen on the cherry inflorescences was 10.2—35.2% in the control variant without fungicide treatments. The winter period of 2017 and 2018 contributed to the preservation of the viability of the causative agent conidia. In the future, they were also a source of spring infection of inflorescences on more susceptible cherry varieties. During the study, the abundance of precipitation during the growing season in 2017,especially in May, also contributed to the intensive development of monilial blight. As a result, the maximal degree of the infection on the susceptible cherry varieties was 3—4 points. (on a five-point scale). In the laboratory conditions fungicides Khorus, VDG (0.3%), Delan, VG (0.6%) and Medeya, ME (0.1%) have high fungicide activity relative to the agent of monilial blight (82.3—92.8%). The biofungicide Phytoflavin, VK (0.2%) insufficiently controlled the disease, its biological effectiveness was 66.3—79.5%
1.Boldyrev, M.I., Lager, G.A. (2008). Fight against brown rot and coccomyces of cherries. Protection and quarantine o plants, 1, 33-34. (In Russian).
2.Gulyaeva, A.A. (2015). Sour and sweet cherry. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3.Gigadlo, E.N. (2009). Breeding method improvement, development of sour and sweet cherry varieties and rootstocks with environmental adapta.tion to conditions of the Central Region of Russia. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4.Dospekhov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the field experiment. Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
5.Dlozhenko, V.I. (Ed.). (2009). Methodical instructions on registration tests of fungicides in agriculture. St.Petersburg. p. 266-286. (In Russian)
6.Nasonova, G.V. (2017). Problem of combating brown rot on cherry and its solution. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 56-73. (In Russian. English abstract.).
7.Nasonova, G.V. & Mitina E.V. (2018). Brown rot is a dangerous disease of fruit crops. In: Plant protection in conditions of ecologization of agricultural production: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 240-244). Orel: Orel State Agrarian University. (In Russian. English abstract).
8.Prakh, S.V. & Mishenko, I.G. (2013). Diseases and pests of stone fruit crops and control measures. Krasnodar: SKNIISiV. P. 7-74. (In Russian).
9.Gigadlo, E.N., Kolesnikova, A.F., Eremin, G.V., Morozova, T.V., Debiskaeva, S.Yu. Kanshina, M.V., Medvedeva, N.I. & Simagin, V.S. (1999).Stone fruit crops. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 300-351). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10.Soroka, S.V. (2005). Integrated crop protection systems against pests, diseases and weeds. Minsk. 463 p. (In Russian).
11.List of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use in the Russian Federation. Reference book. (2017). Moscow. 792 p. (In Russian).
12.Khokhryakova, T.M. (1972). Brown rots of fruit crops. Plant protection, 4, 20-21. (In Russian).
13.Khokhryakov, M.K. (2003). Determinant of plant diseases. Saint Petersburg: “Lan”. P. 401-430. (In Russian).
Stupina, A.Yu. (2018). Features of regulation of the production process of strawberry. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 54-60. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10408 (In Russian, English abstract). Plant growth regulators are natural or synthetic organic substances that can stimulate or inhibit the growth and development of plants without causing their death. There are several main types of natural growth regulators – phytohormones: auxins, gibberellins, cytokines, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid and ethylene. In recent years, a huge number of synthetic analogues was obtained on thebasis of them with a diverse focus of influence on plants and often superior phytohormones in strength. The influence of growth regulators is associated with both direct and indirect effects on physiological processes, which in general allows to change the metabolism of the plant organism radically. For example, to accelerate the formation of generative organs, enhance or inhibit growth, intensify photosynthesis, respiration, defense systems through the expression of individual genes of early response. Growth regulators are used to accelerate the growth of seedlings, increase productivity and improve the quality of strawberries. For example, according to some researchers in the processing of Epin seedling strawberry survival rate was 100%. Yield strawberry garden increased by 20—40%, the berries increased the amount of sugars and ascorbic acid, reduced the content of nitrates, radionuclides and heavy metals in experimental plants accelerated flowering and fruiting. They were notable for good growth and development. However, of many modern plant growth regulators, it is necessary to use drugs that perform not only the stimulation of growth, but also the protective functions of plants. This is especially true for strawberry protection from abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic damaging factors. In large doses, Epin inhibits growth and increases the resistance of strawberry to adverse environmental factors.
1.Aleksandrova, G.D. (2005). Ten best varieties of strawberries and strawberries. Moscow: ACT; Sank-Peterburg: Astrel. (In Russian).
2.Vakulenko, V.V., & Shapoval, O.V. (2000). Plant Growth Regulators. Plant protection, 11, 36-40. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Voynikov, V.K. (2013). Energy and plant information systems cells with hypothermia. Novosibirsk: Science. (In Russian).
4.Galiulina, A.A. (2008). The influence of plant growth regulators on the growth and development of strawberries. Vestnik of the Orenburg State University, 5, 11-13. (In Russian).
5.Girko, V.S., & Sabadin, N.A. (2001). Phytoregulators new generation and spectra their actions on the harvest of winter wheat and triticale. In Growth regulators and plant development in biotechnology: international: Proc. Sci. Conf. Moscow: MAA, 224. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Dragavtseva, I.A, Savin, I.Yu., & Ovechkin, S.V. (2005). Resource potential lands of Krasnodar region for the cultivation of fruit crops. Krasnodar: SKZNIISiV. (In Russian).
8.Efimenko, V.V. (2006). Some physiological aspects of influence regulators of growth and development of plants strawberry garden Fragaria ananassa Duch (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Orel State Agrarian University, Orel, Russia. (In Russian).
9.Zhuchenko, A.A. (2001). Adaptive system of plant selektion (environmental the basics) (Vol. 1). Moscow: Peoples Friendship University of Russia (In Russian).
10.Zhuchenko, A.A. (2008). Environmental genetic the basics food security of Russia. Moscow: Znanie. (In Russian).
11.Klochkova, N.M., Ananov, E.N., & Tretyakov, N.N. (2004). CO2-gas exchange in Pisum Sativum of different morphotypes during early root drought under the influence of succinic acid and epin. Agricultural biology, 1, 67-72. (In Russian, English abstract).
12.Kondakov, A.K. (1992). The results of research on the effectiveness and ecological fertilization of fruit and berry crops. In Ecology and industrial gardening: a collection of scientific works VNIIS behalf I.V. Michurin (pp. 119-125). Michurinsk : VNIIS. (In Russian).
13.Kolupaev, Yu.E., & Karpetz, Yu.E. (2010). Formation of the adaptive responses of plants on the abiotic stressors effect. Kiev: Osnova. (In Russian).
14.Krivushina, D.A., & Prudnikov, P.S. (2017). Features of the regulators growth on the output of the daughter outlets Fragaria ananassa Duch. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 4, 71-73. (In Russian, English abstract).
15.Linnik T.A. (2014). Improving the efficiency of breeding methods of strawberry varieties (Fragaria × Ananassa Duch.), characterized by low shearing capacity (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis).All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing, Vereya, Russia (In Russian).
16.Metlitsky, O.Z., Zeynalov, A.S., Metlitskaya, K.V., & Kholod, N.A. (2010). Methods for assessing the resistance of strawberry varieties to strawberry mite. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 24(2), 76-84. (In Russian, English abstract).
17.Musaev, F.A., Zakharova, O.A., & Kobeleva, A.V. (2017). The efficiency of growth regulator application in the cultivation of garden strawberry in the open ground. Vestnik of Voronezh state agrarian university, 1, 27-33. https:/ doi.org/10.17238/issn2071-2243.2017.1.27 (In Russian, English abstract).
18.Prusakova, L.D., Chizhova, S.I., Tretyakov, N.M.á Ageeva, L.F., Golantseva, E.N., & Yakovlev, A.F. (1999). Antistress functions of the eco stand and epibrassino-lead on spring wheat under conditions Central Non-Chernozem Zone. Agrarian Russia, 1, 39-41. (In Russian).
19.Samoylenko, O.N. (2003). Ways perfection industrial Growing strawberries in the Northern Black Sea region (Agri. Sci. Conf. Thesis). Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian).
20.Shakhova, L.N. (1972). The use of chemical growth regulators on strawberries. In The use of physiologically active substances in horticulture (pp. 122-127). Moscow. (In Russian).
21.Shevelukha, B.S. (1990). Plant growth regulators. Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
22.Khilko, L.A., & Kovalenko, S.P. (2001). The productivity of strawberries in connection with the use of a physiologically active substance of the drug "Universal". In Forms and methods of scientific and organizational and economic support of industries in the context of market relations: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 114-116). Krasnodar. (In Russian).
23.Anderson, H.M., Abbott, A.J., & Wiltshire, S. (1982). Micropropagation of strawberry plants in vitro – effect of growth regulators of indicence of multi-apex abnormality. Scientia Horticulture, 16(4), 331-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(82)90032-2
24.Dennis, F.G., & Bennett, H.O. (1969). Effects of gibberellic acid and deflowering upon runner and inflorescence development in an everbearing strawberry. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci, 94, 534-537.
25.Meyers, K.J., Watkins, C.B., Ptitts, M.P., & Rui Hai Liu. (2003). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of strawberries. J. Agr. and Food Chem., 51(23), 6887-6892. https:/doi.org/10.1021/jf034506n
26.Sung, D.Y., Kaplan, F., Lee, K.J., & Guy, C.L. (2003). Acquired tolerance to temperature extremes. Trends in Plant Science, 8(3), 179-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(03)00047-5
27.Soczek, Z. (1966). The effect of gibberellin on the flowering, fruiting and growth of strawberries. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach, 88(10), 17-52.
28.Xin, Z., & Browse, J. (2000). Cold comfort farm: the acclimation of plants to freezing temperatures. Plant, Cell & Environment, 23(9), 893-902. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00611.x
Emelyanova, O.Yu., Makarkina, M.A., & Firsov, A.N. (2018). Prospects of introduction of Betula L. plants in the Orel district. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 61-69. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10409 (In Russian, English abstract). Betula is often used in the field-protective and urban gardening, in the woodworking, food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical industries and in traditional medicine. In the Oryol region the introduction of species of the Betula genus will make it possible to recommend promising species for medicinal gardens at sanatoriums, rest homes, hospitals, schools and private estates. Studies were conducted from 2012 to 2017. (the content of biologically active substances was studied in 2014—2015). B. pendula (control), B. lenta, B. pendula f. dalecarlica, B. pendula var. carelica and B. Raddeana were studied. The results of the study showed that the aboriginal B. pendula species, which was used as a control, showed the highest results in all the studied directions, except for the content of ascorbic acid in the leaves (the largest content was in B. pendula var. carelica). However, this species has a high degree of flowering, which is a limitation to use it in gardening in recent years, as it becomes a cause of people allergic reactions in the spring. The most promising type for integrated use as part of medicinal gardens at sanatoriums, rest homes, hospitals, schools and private estates is B. pendula f. dalecarlica. This type is high decorative, resistant to adverse environmental influences, has an average degree of flowering, in the leaves and bark it contains a fairly high amount of biologically active substances. B. Raddeana in Central Russia is not recommended as a source of biologically active substances.
1.Vstovskaya, T.N. (2012). Ornamental forms of birch (Betula) recommended for primary testing in cultivation in Siberia. Plant Life of Asian Russia, 1, 119-126. (In Russian, English abstract).
2.Golovach, A.G. (1980). Trees, shrubs and lianas of the Botany Garden of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. (In Russian).
3.Emelyanova, O.Yu., & Tsoy, Ì.F. (2015). Evaluation and conservation of the gene pool of birch family plants ( Betulaceae C.A.Agardh) in the arboretum of the All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 86-96. Retrieved from: journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/4/75.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Emelyanova, O.Yu. (2016). For method of complex assessment of woody plants decorativeness. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 54-74. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/38.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Koropochinskij, I.Yu., & Vstovskaya, T.N. (2012). Woody plants of the Asian part of Russia. (pp. 184-200) Novosibirsk: Academic Publishing «Geo». (In Russian)
6.Korchagina, I.A. (1980). Birch family (Betulaceae) In A.L. Tahtadzhyan (Ed.). Plant life (Vol. 5. Part 1 (pp. 311-324). Moscow: Prosveshchenie. (In Russian).
7.Lapin, P.I., & Sidneva, S.V. (1975). The assessment of plant species freezing degree. In Woody plants of the Central Botanical Garden of the USSR Academy of Sciences (pp. 18–19). Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).
8.Sedov, Z.A., Lenchenko, V.G., & Astakhov, A.I. (1999). Variety estimation for chemical composition of fruit. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 160–167). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9.Semenihin I.D., & Semenihin V.I. (2015). Medicinal plants cultivated in Russia, Vol. II. Moscow. (In Russian)
10.Petunkina, L.O., & Sarsatskaya, A.S. (2015). Phytoindication state of betula pendula in the urban environment of Êemerovo. Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, 4-3 (64), 68-71 (In Russian, English abstract).
11.Tsvelyova, N.N. (Ed.) (2004). Flora of Eastern Europe (Vol. 11, p 65). Moscow, Sankt Peterburg: Tov of scientific publications KMK. (In Russian).
Firsov, A.N., Emelyanova, O.Yu., & Masalova, L.I. (2018). Study of morphological and biological characteristics of the species of plants from the Red book of the Russian Federation in the genetic collection of the VNIISPK arboretum. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 70-79. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10410 (In Russian, English abstract). Study of rare and endangered plants in the arboretums and botanic gardens is an effective way to protect plants. The nature protection law has been in force in the Russian Federation since in 1960. The first volume of the Red Book was published in 1977. The Red Book of the Russian Federation published in 2008 is relevant now and it is devoted to plants and mushrooms. The genetic collection of the VNIISPK arboretum has more than 280 species, genotypes and varieties that represent 31 families, 56 genus including 8 plant species listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. The plants from the VNIISPK arboretum included in the Red book Of the Russian Federation have been studied. The studied plants belong to the following categories of rarity: 1 – plants under threat of extinction: Acer Japonicum Thunb; 2 – plants decreasing in number: Corylus coluna L.and Taxus baccataL.; 3 – rare plants with a naturally low number: Betula RaddeanaTrautv., Juniperus chinensis var. Sargentii A. Henry, Armeniaca mandshurica (Maxim.) Skvortz., Cotoneaster lucidus, Cotoneaster lucidus Schlecht. and Staphylea pinnata L.The task of the research was to study morphological and biological characteristics of the rare and endangered plant species of the VNIISPK genetic collection. The results of the long-term studies are given. The analysis of the total state, resistance to pests and diseases, degrees of blooming and fruiting is presented. The decorativeness of the plants has been estimated. We have revealed the species that are in excellent condition, with abundant flowering and fruiting: Acer japonicum Thunb., Betula Raddeana Trautv., Corylus colunaL. andCotoneaster lucidus Schlecht.; with a high degree of decorativeness: Acer japonicum Thunb., Betula RaddeanaTrautv., Corylus colunaL.,Cotoneaster lucidus Schlecht. and Taxus baccataL.The plants from the Red Book that have the protective status and decorative qualities are the most valuable taxons growing in the genetic collection of the VNIISPK arboretum.
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3. Dubovitskaya, O.Yu. (2014). Collection of herbal introducing plants of VNIISPK arboretum as a source of diversity of species for planting of greenery in settlements. In Proc. Conf. Urgency of V.N. Khitrovos ideas in the investigation of biological diversity in Russia (pp. 60-63). Orel, (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Dubovitskaya, O.Yu. (2014). The results of Siberia trees and shrubs introduction in the central chernozem region of Russia. Problems of botany of South Siberia and Mongolia, 13, 71-73. (In Russian, English abstract).
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8. Kuritskaya, E.V., Vrzhosek, E.V., & Boltenkov, E.V. (2016). Effects of plant growth regulators on in vitro development of Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii and Microbiotadecussata (Cupressaceae) shoots. Rastitelnye resursy, 4, 501-511. (In Russian, English abstract).
9. Serikova, V.I., Lepeshkina, L.A., Prokhorova, O.V., Davydova, N.S., & Kuznetsov, B.I. (2011). Biogeographical basis of the flora study of the protected areas in the Voronezh region in the course of field research. Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Geography. Geoecology, 2, 181-184. (In Russian, English abstract).
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Bogomolova, N.I. (2018). Ñomponents of raspberry varieties productivity as the main criterion of plants productivity. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4, 80-88. https:/doi.org/10.24411/2312-6701-2018-10411 (In Russian, English abstract). The main components of raspberry plant productivity indicators are considered. During the variety investigation the basic productivity components of a raspberry bush were studied. The harvest of the bush consists of the following components: the number of fruit-bearing shoots, the number of fruit branches (laterals) on the shoot, the number of berries on the lateral and the average weight of berries. As a result of the study it was found that the majority of the cultivated zoned raspberry varieties of Russia have the yield up to 10 t/ha (usually 3—6 t/ha) with an average weight of berries 2.0—2.5 g, and the best varieties yield up to 12—15 t/ha with a maximum berry size of 4—5 g. The aim of the study was to reveal new genetic sources of productivity and large fruit size of raspberries that combine a high level of ecological adaptability of plants to biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. The studies were conducted in 2016—2017 in the fields of the Orel region. 22 raspberry varieties of different genetic origin were studied. Place of the research – collection plot of raspberries in VNIISPK, planting date – spring 2013, planting scheme – 4.0×0.5 m. The studies were conducted in accordance with the Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. In the process of studying it was found out that the characteristic criterion for the compactness of raspberry bush shoots was a low ratio of the internode length to the shoot diameter. The group of compact varieties included Lazarevskaya, Volnitza, Espe, Peresvet, Zarianka, Arta and Follgold. Illuzia, Rannya Zaria, Zarianka, Peresvet, Lazarevskaya, Maroseyka and Jvars are characterized by a large number of lateral from 29 to 43 pieces with the average berry load per lateral from 14 to 22 pieces. The maximal number of berries per one shoot was observed in Lazarevskaya, Rannya Zaria, Follgold, Sokolionok, Illusia, Skromnitza and Zarianka (264—450 berries). Rannya Zaria, Follgold, Sokolionok, Illusia, Skromnitza and Lazarevskaya are characterized by the highest productivity (kg per shoot), 1.254—1.720 kg/shoot. Rannya Zaria, Follgold, Sokolionok, Illusia, Skromnitza and Lazarevskaya gave the maximal ton yield per 1 ha during the study, 25—18 t/ha.
1. Kazakov, I.V., Àitzhanova, S.D., Evdokimenko, S.N., Sazonov, F.F., Kulagina, V.L., & Àndronova, N.V. (2016). Berry crops in the Central region of Russia. Moscow: VSTISP. (In Russian).
2. Evdokimenko, S.N., & Jakub, I.A. (2013). Species diversity of a sort Rubus L. and its utilization in raspberry selection. Vestnik OrelGAU, 2, 62-68. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Evdokimenko, S.N., Kulagina, V.L., & Yakub, I.À. (2014). Adaptive and production potential of new remontant raspberry varieties and forms in Bryansk region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 38(1), 124-131. (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Ruzavina, Yu.V. (2015). Economic and Biological Estimation of the Introduced Raspberry Varieties under Conditions of Forest-Steppe of the Volga Region. Achievements of Science and Technology of AICis, 29(10), 77-79 . (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Kanshina, M.V., & Akulenko, E.G. (2009). Adaptability and berry quality of new black currant genotypes. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 22(2), 80-87. (In Russian, English abstract).
6. Yakub, I.A. (2015). Selection estimation of remontant raspberries for adaptation in the south-west of Nechernozemie (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Bryansk, Bryansk State Agrarian University, Russia (In Russian).
7. Yakub, I.A. (2013). The use of wild Rubus L. species in breeding for adaptation. Vestnik of the Bryansk State Agricultural Academy, 1, 37-40. (In Russian, English abstract).
8. Zhidyokhina, T.V. (2012) Bioenergetic potential of black currant as a factor for increase of fruit size and yield quality. Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin. Natural sciences, 21-1, 87-90. (In Russianá English abstract).
9. Yakub, I.A. (2015). Components of adaptability and productivity of remontant raspberries, their connection and possibilities of combining. In Proc. Intern. Sci. Conf. (pp. 281-285). Gorki (In Russian).
10. Bogomolova, N.I., Mitina, E.V., & Lupin, M.V. Main biometric parameters of raspberry plants as a component of high productivity of the grade. Bulletin of Agrarian Science, 3, 18-23. (In Russian, English abstract).
11. Bogomolova, N.I. (2015). Heat resistance of red raspberry in conditions of Central Russia (Orel region). In Competitive varieties and technologies for highly effective horticulture: Proc. Intern. Sci. Conf. (pp. 20-23). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
12. Kazakov, I.V., Gruner, L.A., & Kichina, V.V. (1999). Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 374–395). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).