Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Serova Z.M., Yanchuk T.V. (2016): Contribution of Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding to apple assortment improvement. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 1-10. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/40.pdf All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding is the oldest pomology and breeding institution that celebrated its 170-anniversary in 2015. As a result of the long-term breeding and genetic work 75 apple cultivars have been created, 55 of them have been included in the State Register of breeding achievements admitted for use (zoned). The priority tasks of apple breeding are scab immune apple breeding, creating of triploid cultivars and development of columnar cultivars (Sedov, 2011; Sedov et al., 2015). The main advantages of triploid cultivars are high consumers’ and marketable qualities of fruit. Breeding with using polyploidy though having certain difficulties is more efficient than breeding for development of a new diploid cultivar at the cost of a greater breeding value of seedlings obtained from the hybridization with using polyploidy and essentially reduces the volume of hybridization. By now, 20 such apple cultivars have been developed at the Institute, 15 of them have been included in the State Register. The priority in developing scab immune apple cultivars belongs to American scientists. Round the world over 200 scab immune apples have been developed. Owing to the realization of the breeding program for apple immunity to scab the backlog from the foreign countries was eliminated though the breeding program in Russia was started 20–30 years later. More than 20 apple cultivars have been developed and included in the State Register of breeding achievements admitted for use. Cultivars created by common methods are also of interest: ‘Veteran’, ‘Kulikovskoye’, ‘Orlik’, ‘Orlinka’, ‘Orlovskoye Polosatoye’ and ‘Radost Nadezhdy’. These cultivars are well known among fruit growers in Russia.
1.Gavrishev N.N., Ananin N.V. (2009): Low-sized orchards for human’s health. Volgograd. (In Russian).
2.Doroshenko T.N., Ryazanova L.G., Ostapenko V.I. (2007): The assessment of apple resistance to abiotic stressors in summer in the south of Russia. In: Proc. Sci. Conf. Breeding prospects of apple and other crops for industrial plantations. Michurinsk.: 72-76. (In Russian).
3.Esichev S.T. (2010): The assessment of fruit cultivars and hybrids after winter 2009/2010 at Kaluga SVP. In: XXII Michurinskie readings. Michurinsk, VNIIGISPR. 99-104. (In Russian).
4.Zhdanov V.V., Sedov E.N. (1991): Apple breeding for scab resistance. Tula, Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
5.Kichina V.V. (2011): Principles of orchard plant improvement. Moscow, VSTISP. (In Russian).
6.Kondratenko T.E. (2002): The principles of formation of industrial apple assortment in the Ukraine. [Agri. Sci. Doctoral Thesis]. Kiev, National Agrarian University. (In Ukrainian).
7.Kondratenko T.E. (2013): Pomology. Apple tree. Vinniza, NilanLTD.
8.Kondratenko T.E. (2010): Apple varieties for industrial and amateur gardens of Ukraine. Kiev, Manuskript.
9.Krasulya T.I., Tolstolik L.N. (2010): Apple and pear varieties resistant to low winter and spring temperatures in the South of the Ukraine Steppe. In: Proc. Int. Sci. Conf. Fruit-growing intensification in Belarus: traditions, progress, prospects. Samohvalovichi, Institute for Fruit Growing: 22-24.
10.Liznev V.N. (1985): Polyploidy in apple Breeding. Plodoovoshchnoe khozyaistvo, 11: 21-23. (In Russian).
11.Ponomarenko V.V. (1985): Polyploidy of Malus Mile species. In: Apple breeding for fruit quality improvement. Orel, VASKhNIL: 163-168. (In Russian).
12.Savelev N.I., Saveleva N.N., Yushkov A.N. (2009): Prospective apple varieties which are immune to scab. Michurinsk, VNIIGISPR (In Russian).
13.Savelev N.I., Saveleva N.N. (2008): Resistance of scab-immune apple tree varieties to sharp temperature gradient after thaw. Herald of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 6: 39-39. (In Russian, English abstract).
14.Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Makarkina M.A., Levgerova N.S., Serova Z.M., Korneyeva S.A., Gorbacheva N.G., Salina E.S., Yanchuk T.V., Pikunova A.V., Ozherelieva Z.E. (2015): The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
15.Sedov E.N., Korneeva S.A., Serova Z.M. (2013): Columnar apple trees in the intensive orchard. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
16.Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A. (1985): A role of polyploidy in apple breeding. Tula, Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
17.Sedov E. N. (2011): Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian)
18.Sedov E.N., Zhdanov V.V. (1983): Apple resistance to scab (varieties and breeding). Tula, Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
19.Sedysheva G.A., Sedov E.N. (1994): Polyploidy and apple breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
20.Susov V.I. (2009): Promising varieties of fruit trees. Moscow. (In Russian).
21.Sukhotskiy M.I. (2009): A book of the up-to-date grower. Minsk, Minsk color printing factory. (In Russian).
22.Tutkin G.A. (2010): A role scab immune apple varieties and small-sized intermediate stocks in establishing intensive orchards. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Orel, Orel State Agrarian University. (In Russian).
23.Yarmolich S.A. (2009): Biological features and economical value of new introduced cultivars and promising hybrids of apple of Belorussian breeding. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Samokhvalovichi, Institute for Fruit Growing. (In Russian).
Merezhko O.E., Mursalimova G.R., Nigmatyanova S.E., Tikhonova M.A.
Merezhko O.E., Mursalimova G.R., Nigmatyanova S.E., Tikhonova M.A. (2016): Natural dwarfs apples of the urals region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 11-18. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/41.pdf The breeding achievement of apple varieties in the FSBSI "Orenburg ESHV ARBTIHN" is presented and described. When creating natural dwarf apple varieties, the intervarietal crossings, hybridization of geographically distant varieties, interspecific hybridization with using small-fruited forms, as well as repeated or saturating crosses with best varieties as donors of relevant traits were used. These varieties are precocious, come into bearing in the third year, and in the fourth-fifth years they give abundant yield. ‘Arcaim’ is a variety of winter ripening, natural dwarf, crown of medium thickness with branches off the trunk down. ‘Trudovoe’ is a variety of winter ripening, natural dwarf, crown of medium thickness, round-wilt. ‘Orskoe’ is a variety of winter ripening, natural dwarf, crown of medium thickness with curved branches pointed down. ‘Orenburgkoe’ is a variety of winter ripening, natural dwarf, crown of medium thickness with branches located few and far-between.
1. Vartapetyan V.V. (1976): The inheritance of vitamin C and P-active substances in connection with apple breeding for high vitamin content. Moscow.: 42-49. (In Russian).
2.Brown A.G. (1975): Advances in Fruit Breeding. Apples. Purdue-Univ. Press, West Lafayette, Indiana: 3-37.
3.Gudkovsky V.A. (2000): Problems and ways of development of effective gardening of Russia. In: Proc. Int. Sci. Conf. Intensive gardening. Michurinsk, 1: 20-25. (In Russian).
4.Cummins J.N., Aldwinckle H.S. (1988): New directions in rootstocks breeding. Hort Science, 23(1): 100-101.
5.Sedov E.N., Kalinina I.P., Smykov V.K. (1995): Apple breeding. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel, VNIISPK.: 159-201. (In Russian).
6.Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G., Zhdanov V.V., Dolmatov E.A., Mozhar N.V. (1999): Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In: E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK.: 253-300 (In Russian).
7.Kalinina I.P., Yashchemskaya Z.S. (2004): Apple Breeding for high resistance and immunity to scab. In: Breeding of agricultural plants on the immune system. Novosibirsk.: 78-79. (In Russian).
8.Kuznetsov P.V. New varieties with compact crowns as a source of breeding for compact growth. In: Breeding of Apple cultivars of intensive type. Kiev.: 86-87. (In Russian).
9. Guzhov Y.L., Fuchs A., Valicek P. (1999): Selection, and Seed Farming of the Cultivated Plants. Moscow, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia Edition Publ.
10.Merezhko O.E., Mursalimova G.R. (2015): Way of development of horticulture in the Orenburg region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia. 42: 284-286. (In Russian, English abstract)
VerzilinA.V. (2016): New cherry varieties and rootstock combinations. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 19-24. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at:http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/42.pdf
Cherry is a leading stone fruit crop in Russia in production of high-value fruits both from the point of view of their taste qualities and biochemical composition. However, in recent decades there has been a sharp reduction in the area occupied by this culture and the fall of productivity up to 1.5-2.0 t/ha. This is due to a number of reasons, the chief among them are the imperfection of the existing technologies of the crop cultivation and the difficult social and economic situation in the country. In particular, the reason for this situation is insufficient knowledge and many unsolved technical issues, including those relating to the choice of rational schemes of planting, small structures of trees, application of crop growth regulators, protective measures and other issues.
Thus, the aim of the research is to carry out the economic and biological evaluation of cherry varieties and identify the most promising cherry varieties and rootstock combinations.
The researches carried out on the territory of Agricultural and Biological Station of Michurinsk State Agrarian University located on the right bank of the river Forest Voronezh, allowed to identify the adaptability and options of tree crowns of some promising varieties and rootstock combinations for the area.
The most adaptive and promising varieties and rootstock combinations growing on the territory of Agricultural and Biological Station of Michurinsk State Agrarian University are Bystrinka/Antipka, Morozova’s Dessertnaya/V-2-180, Morozova’s Dessertnaya/V4-13, Morozova’s Dessertnaya/OVP-2, Zhukovskaya/non-grafted, Turgenevka/V4-13, Turgenevka/V-5-172, Turgenevka/P-7, Kharitonovskaya/Antipka, Kharitonovskaya/V4-13, Kharitonovskaya/V-5-88, Kharitonovskaya/VP-1 and Kharitonovskaya/P-7. Their safety is 80…100% (from 5 to 3 points). For these varieties and rootstock combinationsonecan be used more dense planting schemes (4.0 m × 3.0 m and 4.0 m × 2.5 m).
1.Dyadchenko D.G. (2005): Problems of formation of the economic conditions necessary for the development of gardening. In: Scientific bases of gardening, Voronezh, Kvarta.: 511-522. (In Russian).
2.Kolesnikova A.F. (1975): Breeding and some biological features of cherries in the temperate zone of RSFSR. Orel, Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo. (In Russian).
3.Lukin E.S., Popov M.A., Shchekotova L.A. (1998): The state and tasks of higher efficiency of stone fruit production in the Middle zone of horticulture in Russia.In: Ways of the improvement of horticulture resistance. Michurinsk, VNIIS.: 50-52. (In Russian).
4.Lukin E.S., Shchekotova L.A., Popov M.A. (2001): System of adaptable cultivation of stone fruit plantations in the Middle European region of Russia. In: Basic results and prospects of scientific studies. Tambov, Tambov State Technical University. 1: 118-129. (In Russian).
5.Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding (1980): Lobanov G.A. (ed.). Michurinsk, VNIIS.: 40-41. (In Russian).
FedulovaYu.A., ShikovetsT.A. (2016): Chaenomelesjaponicaisanewfruitcropinrussiangardens. Sovremennoesadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 25-29. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/43.pdf Chaenomeles (Chaenomeles japonica as a species of Japanese quince) is a fruit culture characterized by a high content of organic acids, pectin, aromatic substances, biologically active compounds and such valuable qualities as high yield, annual fruiting, resistance to pests, diseases and unfavorable weather conditions. It is characterized by medium-early flowering but its long duration (2–3 weeks) due to the successive blooming flowers reduces the probability of crop losses from spring frosts. In the Tambov region in Michurinsk State Agrarian University the study and selection of resistant and decorative varieties having a complex of economically important traits are carried out. New varieties of the universal destination Voskhod, Flagman and Sharm were derived in Michurinsk in 2002–2005 and in 2014 they were included in the State Register of protected selection achievements of the Russian Federation. The evaluation of the new varieties and hybrids growing on the territory of Agricultural and Biological Station of Michurinsk State Agrarian University is carried out. In the analysis of frost-resistance of varieties and forms it was found that this feature is limiting for the introduction of the culture in gardening in the Central Russia. Different varieties and forms depending on their geographical origin and selection vary considerably according to product quality and biological activity of the fruit. One of the key indicators that determines the feasibility of the introduction of non-traditional fruit species in the culture is a biological value of the fruit. The fruits of Chaenomeles japonica have a lot of valuable qualities, a high content of biologically active substances which makes it possible to use this culture for medicinal purposes. Varieties Voskhod, Flagman and Sharm are macrocarpous. They have no thorns on the shoots and they are frost-resistance. They have the most optimal chemical composition that allows their use in therapeutic and preventive nutrition.
1.Dospekhov B.A. (1979): Methods of the field experiment. Moscow, Kolos. (In Russian).
2.Kuklina A.G., Fedulova Yu.A. (2015): Breeding of new varieties of chaenomeles. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 41: 200-202. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Michurin I.V. (1948): About reproduction of apple and pear by cuttings. In: Works in 4 volumes. Moscow, OGIZ, Selkhozgiz, 3:445-446. (In Russian).
4.Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G., Zhdanov V.V., Dolmatov E.A., Mozhar N.V. (1999): Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In: E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 253-300 (In Russian).
Shavyrkina M.A., Knyazev S.D., Makarkina M.A., Tovarnitskaya M.V. (2016): The evaluation of promising black currant genotypes for productivity and biochemical composition. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 30-35. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/44.pdf In black currant studies conducted at the FSBSI All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK), one of the priority tasks is to pick out sources and donors of resistance to diseases and powdery mildew in the first place. As a rule, many genotypes picked out for this trait do not have high yields and improved chemical composition, for this reason the aim of these studies was to evaluate promising varieties and forms resistant to powdery mildew for yield level and biochemical indices as well as to pick out the most promising genotypes for breeding. Data of the competition variety investigation of promising black currant varieties and forms from the VNIISPK breeding program are given. Studies were conducted in 2014–2015 on the plots of the initial variety investigation. 21 black currant genotypes resistant to powdery mildew were studied. As a result of two years (2014–2015) a number of varieties and forms (‘Arapka’, 2083-32-158 and 3183-49-163) with high productivity and regular fruit-bearing were picked out. It was noted that some promising varieties did not yield to zoned cultivars in the biochemical composition. Among them the genotypes were picked out with the content of biologically active and nutritious substances: soluble dry substances (over 16%) – 3268-43-6 (17%); ascorbic acid content at the average (from 150 to 200 mg/100 g) – 3569-15-6 (195.4), 3209-41-43 (166.3) and 3206-41-112 (156.6); sugar content (over 11%) – 3268-43-6 (12.8%), 3058-9-209 (11.1%)3808-42-135 (12.33%), 3589-16-8 (12.31%) and 3038-5-65 (11.58%); titrate acid content (below 2%) – 2061-37-111 (1.52%) and 3007-3-107 (1.94%). The selected forms may be recommended for breeding as sources of economically important traits and in prospects they may become a basis of the industrial assortment.
1.StatestandartR 52184-2003 (2003): Cannedfood. Juices from fresh fruits. Specifications. Moscow, Goststandart. (In Russian).
2.Ermakov A.I., Arasimovich V.V., Yarosh N.P., Peruanskii Yu.V., Lukovnikova G.A., Ikonnikova M.I. (1978): Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (ed.). Agropromizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian).
3.Knyazev S.D., Bayanova L.V. Âlack currant, gooseberry and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 351-374. (In Russian).
4.Knyazev S.D., Shvyrkina M. A., Yanchyk T.V. (2015): Some of the results of a competitive investigation of black currant breeding VNIISPK. In: Proc. Int. Sci. Conf. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops. Competitive varieties and technologies for highly effective horticulture. Orel, VNIISPK. : 100-103. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Shavyrkina M.A., Knyazev S.D. (2015): The evaluation of black currant form according to the morphostructural components of productivity. Vestnik OrelGAU,56(5): 46-50. (In Russian, English abstract).
GusevaN.K. (2016): The variety investigation of alien raspberry varieties in conditions of Transbaikal region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 36-39. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/45.pdf The article presents the variety investigation of alien raspberry varieties under the conditions of the Transbaikal region. The raspberry variety investigation was started in the conditions of Buryatia in 1950. During the period studied more than 84 varieties and hybrids of alien selection were studied. In Buryatia raspberry is considered to be low winter-hardy and is grown with bound mulching of shoots. Despite this, it is very popular and common in the collective, household and amateur gardens. However, from the tested 10 varieties of raspberry (Altai, Novosibirsk, Far East and Kokino selection), it is possible to grow plants without sheltering in winter, just bend the shoots to the ground. After overwintering in early May raspberries should be lifted to trim and old shoots should be cut off, the plants should be plentifully watered with the following mellowing. The studied varieties have good processing quality and biochemical parameters. All of the studied varieties have high tasting evaluations for processed products (compotes, jams, mashed weight – 5 points). 8 out of 10 varieties have been zoned in the Republic of Buryatia (‘Barnaulskaya’, ‘Zorenka Altaia’, ‘Doch Vislukhi’, ‘Novosibirskaya Krupnaya’, ‘Illusia’, ‘Kokinskaya’, ‘Amurchanka’, ‘Doch Amurchanki’). All varieties are in great demand among gardeners of Buryatia.
1.Guseva N.K., Sordonova M.N., Batueva Yu.M., Myakhanova N.T., Kirgizova G.T., Lubsanova E.Yu. (2014): Varieties of fruit crops and their cultivation technology in Buryatia: methodological recommendations. Ulan-Ude, BSAA. (In Russian).
2.Guseva N.K., Shiripnimbueva B.Ts., Arbakov K.A., Batueva Yu.M. (2010): Raspberries. In: Horticulture in Buryatia. Ulan-Ude. (In Russian).
3.Kichina V.V., Kazakov I.V. Guner L.A. Raspberrie and blackberrie breeding. In: Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel, VNIISPK: 368-387. (In Russian).
BIOLOGY, ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF FRUIT CROPS
BogomolovaN.I., OzherelievaZ.E. (2016): An adaption potential of red raspberry to damaging winter factors in the field and controlled conditions of Central Russia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 40-52. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/46.pdf
The results of raspberry adaptability to abiotic winter factors are given. The questions of damaging of generative and vegetative raspberry organs were studied under the field and laboratory conditions. One of the main tasks of the initial estimation of raspberry gene pool in the collection of All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding was to determine the potential of resistance to the basic kinds of winter damages. The aim of this work was to study the winter hardiness of raspberries of different origin in the field and laboratory conditions and to reveal promising cultivars and selections for this region. Twenty four raspberry cultivars of different genetic origin were studied. The observations were carried out in the field conditions at collection plots planted in 1997 and 2004 with 3.0 × 0.8 m spacing. The studies were conducted at the VNIISPK laboratory of resistance physiology of fruit plants and in the field conditions in 2008–2012. The field estimations of raspberry varieties showed that ‘Vera’, ‘Sokolionok’, ‘Illuzia’ and ‘Ranniaya Zaria’, wide cultivated varieties in Siberia, demonstrated sufficiently high and stable winter hardiness in conditions of the south of the middle zone of Russia. The Ukrainian varieties had the best indices of winter hardiness (0.0–0.4 points) among the introduced varieties. The varieties of I.V. Kazakov’s breeding had different levels of winter hardiness in the field conditions. ‘Peresvet’, ‘Sputnitsz’, ‘Skromnitsa’, ‘Volnitsa’ and ‘Brigantina’ showed the highest winter hardiness (0.5–1.0 points). The results of artificial freezing showed that in early winter all of the raspberry varieties and selections demonstrated high degrees of winter hardiness. Severe damages of vegetative buds, wood and bark were observed in mid winter in 2009–2010 (2.8–3.2 points). Late in winter all of the studied raspberry varieties showed low resistance to returned frosts. ‘Brigantina’, ‘Volnitsa’ and 9/68 selection were characterized by the highest level of vegetative bud and tissue resistance according to all components of winter hardiness.
1.Weiser C.J. (1970): Cold resistance and injury in woody plants. Knowledge of hardy plant adaptations to freezing stress may help us to reduce winter damage. Science, 169(3952): 1269-1278. DOI: 10.1126/science.169.3952.1269
2.Savelyev N.I. (1998): Genetic basis of apple trees breeding. Michurinsk, VNIIGiSPR. (In Russian).
3.Arsentev A.P. (2000): Black currant resistance to frosts and late spring frosts. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Moscow, All-Russia Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. (In Russian).
4.Khaustovich I.P. (2006): The increase of orchard resistance in connection with the climate change in the Central Chernozem Region. [Agri. Sci. Doc. Thesis]. Michurinsk, Michurinsk State Agrarian University. (In Russian).
5.Chandler W.H. (1935): Fruit growing. [Translation from English]. Leningrad, Selkhozgiz. (In Russian).
6.Sergeev L.I. (1964): Morphophysiological studies of the hardiness of woody plants. In: The physiology of hardiness in woody plants. Moscow, Nauka: 5-20. (In Russian).
7.Zraly B. (1978): Frost hardiness of raspberry canes. Acta Hortic., 81: 129-136. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1978.81.17
8.Kichina V.V. (1999): The selection of fruit and berry crops in the high level of winter hardiness (Concepts, methods and techniques). Moscow, Kolos. (In Russian).
9.Tyurina M.M., Gogoleva G.A. (1978): Accelerated assessment of frost resistance of fruit and berry plants. Methodological recommendations. Moscow, Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture of Non-chernozem zone. (In Russian).
10.Kazakov I.V., Kichina V.V., Gruner L.A. (1999): Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 383-385. (In Russian).
11.Dolmatov E.A., Sidorov A.V., Baranov R.V. (2008): Winterhardiness of new common quince genotypes in connection with its use as a seed rootstock of pear. In: Problems of agroecology and adaptability of cultivars in the contemporary horticulture of Russia, VNIISPK, Orel: 60-64. (In Russian).
12.Rezvyakova S.V. (1996): The use of artificial freezing at different stages of apple breeding. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Moscow, All-Russia Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. (In Russian).
13.Alekseev V.P. (1983): Winter hardiness components in domestic apple cultivars and forms (Malus domestica Borkh.). [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Moscow, All-Russia Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. (In Russian).
14.Efimova N.V. (1984): Early diagnostics of winter hardiness in apple breeding. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Moscow, All-Russia Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. (In Russian).
15.Tyurina M.M., Gogoleva G.A. (1966): The effect of artificial thaws on the frost hardiness of fruit trees I connection with dormancy. In: Reports of Soviet scientists to the 18th International Congress on gardening. Moscow : 297-300. (In Russian).
LeonichevaE.V., RoevaT.A., LeontievaL.I., VetrovaO.A., StolyarovM.E. (2016): Potassium and phosphorus content in apple leaves as affected by foliar fertilization. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 53-61. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/47.pdf The influence of separate and combined foliar fertilization with H3BO3 (0.1%), K2SO4 (0.3%) and CaCl2 (1%) on the potassium and phosphorus leaf concentration has been studied in the field experiment with ‘Imrus’apple on intercalary stock 3–4–98. The experiment was conducted in pedoclimatic conditions of forest-steppe of the Central Russian Upland (Orel region) in 2011…2013. The experimental orchard was on loamy grey forest soil with high phosphorus and potassium content. Treatments were done five times during the vegetation period. The results showed that the presence of potassium in the composition of fertilizers did not ensure the increase of this element content in leaves. The phosphorus concentration in apple leaves was significantly higher when potassium was absent in foliar spray composition. The reciprocal influence of the tank-mix components was observed for treatments by Ê2SÎ4 + Í3ÂÎ3 and Ê2SÎ4 + ÑàÑl2 mixes. The influence of the foliar spray on the leaf element composition significantly depends on the yield load and meteorological conditions.
1.Dospehov B.A. (1985): Field experiment method (with statistic processing f investigation results). Moscow, Agrokhimizdat. (In Russian).
2.Doroshenco T.N., Ostapenco V.I., Ryazanova L.G., Dubravina I.V., Chumacov S.S. (2005): The influence of potassium foliar nutrition on apple fruit quality formation. Reports of The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 3: 38-40. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Kondakov A.K. (2007): Fertilizing of fruit trees, berry plants, nurseries and ornamental crops. Michurinsk. (In Russian).
4.Kuzin A.I., Trunov Y.V. (2016): Influence of phase systems of foliar application of apple trees on the formation of productivity components in an intensive orchard. Achievements of Science and Technology of AIC, 5: 61-63. (In Russian).
5.Leonicheva E.V., Roeva T.A., Leonteva L. I., Vetrova O. A. (2014): Magnesium accumulation apple fruit as a result of foliar spray application. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/2/27.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
6.Leonicheva E.V., Roeva T.A., Leontieva L.I., Vetrova O.A. (2015): Varietal features of potassium nutrition of apple under foliar fertilization. Horticulture and viticulture, 5: 35-41. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Mineev V.G. (1989): Practice work on agrochemistry. Moscow, MGU. (In Russian).
8.Sergeeva N.N., Nenco N.I., Jacuba Y.F. (2012): Influence of nutritional conditions on the content of amino acids in the apple-tree leavers. Fruit growing and viticulture of south Russia, 13(1): 76-85. Available at: http://www.journal.kubansad.ru/get/198/ (In Russian, English abstract).
9.Trunov Yu.V. (2013): Biological principles of mineral apple nutrition. Voronezh, Kvarta. (In Russian).
10.Trunov Yu.V., Greznev O.A., Kuzin A.I. (2011): Outside apple root application of fertilizer as a way of optimization of mineral plant nutrition. In:
11.Ryabtseva T.V., Kapichnicova N.G., Ihnatova N.V., Turbin P.A., Leonovich I.S.(2013): Efficiency of chelate foliar fertilization in the intensive fruit-bearing orchard of pear. Fruit growing and viticulture of south Russia, 23(5): 131-145. Available at: http://www.journal.kubansad.ru/get/380/ (In Russian, English abstract).
12.Chumakov S.S. (2008): The peculiarities of extra-root nutrition of apple in conditions of the Kuban zone of horticulture. [Agr. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Krasnodar, Kuban State Agrarian University. (In Russian).
13.Amiriac, Mohammad E., Fallahib Esmaeil, Golchina Ahmad. (2008): Influence of Foliar and Ground Fertilization on Yield, Fruit Quality, and Soil, Leaf, and Fruit Mineral Nutrients in Apple. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31(3): 515-525. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160801895035
14.Fageria N.K., Barbosa Filho M.P., Moreira A., Guimarães C.M. (2005): Foliar fertilization of Crop Plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27(7): 1149-1162. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160902872826
15.Jivan C., Sala F. (2014): Relationship between tree nutritional status and apple quality. HortScience (Prague), 41: 1-9.
16.Khalifa R.Kh.M., Hafez Omaima M., Abd-El-Khair H. (2009): Influence of foliar spraying with boron and calcium on productivity, fruit quality, nutritional status fnd controlling of blossom end rod disease of Anna apple trees. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(2): 237-249.
17.Peryea Frank J., Neilsen D., Neilsen G. (2003): Boron Maintenance Sprays for Apple: Early-season Applications and Tank-mixing with Calcium Chloride. HortScience, 38(4): 542-546.
18.Porro D., Dorigatti C., Ramponi V. (2002): Can Foliar Application Modify Nutritional Status and Improve Fruit Quality? Results on Apple in Northeastern Italy. Acta Horticulturae, 594: 521-526. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.594.68
19.Wojcika P. (2002): Yeld and “Jonagold” apple fruit quality as influenced by spring sprays with commercial Rosatop material containing calcium and boron. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25(5): 999-1010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-120003934
20. Wojcika P. (2006): Effect of Postharvest Sprays of Boron and Urea on Yield and Fruit Quality of Apple Trees. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29(3): 441-450. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160500524894
Mursalimova G.R. (2016): Application of substrate at cultivation of clonal rootstocks in the steppe Urals region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 62-68. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/48.pdf
As a result of the work the reasonable use of organic substrate "sawdust with the following mulchingl" was confirmed for growing cuttings in the intensive nursery. The highest yield of rooted cuttings was obtained after hilling with sawdust, followed by mulching; in this variant a single mother plant produced 13.3 standard rooted rootstocks. Rootstocks treated by the substrate developed a dense root system with high-grade roots and a number of roots by 50–100 mm length greatly increased. When hilling clonal rootstocks grows a high-quality rootstock material with aligned aerial parts and well-developed fibrous root system. In conditions of the steppe Urals it is more efficient to use sawdust with the following mulching as an organic substrate in the root layer nursery.
1.Mursalimova G.R. (2013): the Role of genetic collections in the priority and fundamental objectives in the horticulture of the southern Urals. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 37(1): 237-244. (In Russian, English abstract)
2.Mursalimova G.R. (2014): Introduction of the clone rootstock genofund and its use to improve the Priuralye assortment. Izvestia Orenburg State Agrarian University, 6:149-152. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Mursalimova G.R., Khardikova S.V. (2014): Clonal rootstocks of Apple as the fundamentals of the selection process in the conditions of Southern Urals. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 39: 208-211. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Mursalimova G.R. (2015): Adaptive and productive varieties of clonal rootstocks of apple as an alternative, competitive products in the global market. Works of Kuban State Agrarian University. 55: 165-169 (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Bhattacharya N.C., Kaur N.P., Nanda, K.K. (1975): Transients in isoperoxidases during rooting of etiolated stem segments of Populus nigra. Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen.167: 159-164.
6.Mursalimova G. R., Ivanova E. A., Tikhonova M. A., Juraev, F. K., mushinsky A. A., Starodubtseva E. P. (2014): Selection evaluation of apple rootstocks breeding Orenburg experimental station of horticulture and viticulture on the complex of economically valuable traits of plants. Bulletin of the Orenburg scientific center, Ural branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. 4: 6. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Ivanova E. A., Mursalimova G.R., Avdeeva Z.A., Merezhko O.E., Tihonova M.A., Starodubtseva E.P., Nigmatyanova S.E., Dzhuraeva F.K. (2015): Growing adaptive planting material for orchards in the conditions of the Orenburg region. Works of Kuban State Agrarian University. 55: 81-84 (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Gryazev V.A. (1999): Cultivation for highly productive gardens. Stavropol, Caucasian region. (In Russian).
9.Potapov I.A. Uranishi A.S. Gladyshev N.P. [et al.] (1996): Technology of cultivation slaboroslyh intensive Apple orchard in the middle area of horticulture of the Russian Federation. Michurinsk. (In Russian).
TikhonovaM.A.,MursalimovaG.R. (2016): The impact of preparations of new generation on the development and productivity of grapes in conditions of the Urals. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 69-74. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/49.pdf The impact of preparations of new generation on grapes growth and development, productivity, quality and immunity to the unfavorable environment was studied in conditions of steppe of the Urals (Orenburg region). The results showed that that the drugs increased the length of shoots of the studied cultivars. The greatest effect was obtained from the application of preparation "Mival-Agro", which includes most plant-available elements causing the enhancement of linear growth of shoots. Treatment with drugs led to the increase in the degree of sprout ripening. Good ripening was observed in plants in the variants with the application of ‘’Zircon’’ from 73% (‘Aleshenkin Dar’) to 92% (‘Augustine’). The increase in the productivity of the varieties was due to the treatments with "Mival-Agro" by 12.6% (‘Muromez’) – 171.4% (‘Augustine’) and "Zircon" by 4,8% (‘Muromez’) – 108.3% (‘Aleshenkin Dar’). The use of drugs contributed to the increase in the structural components of productivity, the average weight of a bunch and average weight of a berry. The experience showed that the use of drugs of new generation "Mival-Agro" and "Zircon" had a positive impact on growth, development and productivity of the studied varieties.
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4.Study on the collection of grapes Ya.I. Poyapenko VNIIViV (2005): Novocherkassk.
5.Mursalimova G.R., Khardikova S.V. (2016): Ecological and physiological aspects of influence of humate on the growth and development of apple trees. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 46: 268-272. (In Russian, English abstract).
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9.Tikhonova M.A. (2012): Features of biology and vegetative propagation of Vitis L. cultivars in the conditions of Orenburg Ural. [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Orenburg, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. (In Russian).
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Salina E.S., Levgerova N.S., Sedov E.N., Sidorova I.A. (2016):The efficiency of using columnar apples as raw material for juice production. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 75-81. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/50.pdf The results of the technological evaluation of suitability of columnar apple cultivars for juice production are given. Columnar apple cultivars from the VNIISPK program ‘Vostorg’, ‘Girlianda’, ‘Zeliony Shum’, ‘Pamyati Blynskogo’, ‘Poezia’, ‘Priokskoye’ and ‘Sozvezdie’ have been evaluated. It is shown that all of these cultivars exceed control cultivar ‘Antonovka Obyknovennaya’ in physical, chemical and organoleptic indices and they meet the Technical Regulations for juice production. The soluble dry matters (SDM) content was from 14.7% (‘Pamyati Blynskogo’) to 12.8% (‘Poezia’), control – 11.2%.The juice of ‘Sozvezdie’, ‘Priokskoye’ and ‘Girlianda’ owing to its lower acidity (0.66%, 0.71% and 0.77%, respectively) may be recommended for baby’s feeding. All cultivars have shown high organoleptic juice qualities. The mean organoleptic mark of the juices was 4.4 points. The best taste qualities were noted in juice of ‘Sozvezdie’ and ‘Priokskoye’ (4.6 points), the sugar-acid coefficient was 20.9 and 18.4 respectively. In respect of juice output, cultivars have been categorized in this way: ‘Priokskoye’ (66.3%) → ‘Zeliony Shum’ (57.6%) → ‘Girlianda’ (55.9%) → ‘Sozvezdie’ (52.3%) → ‘Pamyati Blynskogo’ (52.1%) → ‘Vostorg’ (49.4%) → ‘Poezia’ (48.5%). The mean juice output from the columnar apple cultivars amounted to 55.6%, control – 62.9%. Efficiency of cultivation columnar apple varieties for raw juice industry compared to conventional cultivars caused by the high juice output per unit area. So, the mean juice output from one hectare (t/ha) in columnar varieties was 11.6 t/ha (in the control 6.3 t/ha) – from 19.5 (‘Priokskoye’) to 5.4 t/ha (‘Sozvezdie’). For growing in the intensive raw-stock orchard the most promising cultivar is ‘Priokskoye’ that combines high yields and high juice output with fine organoleptic juice qualities and allows obtaining 19.5 t/hectare (control – 6.3 t/hectare).
1.State standart R 52184-2003 (2003): Canned food. Juices from fresh fruits. Specifications. Moscow, Standartinform. (In Russian).
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8.Sedov E.N., Levgerova N.S., Salina E.S., Serova Z.M. (2010): Apple selection and breeding for juice production. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9. Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Makarkina M.A., Levgerova N.S., Serova Z.M., Korneyeva S.A., Gorbacheva N.G., Salina E.S., Yanchuk T.V., Pikunova A.V., Ozherelieva Z.E. (2015): The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10.Sedov E.N., Korneeva S.A., Serova Z.M. (2013): Columnar apple trees in the intensive orchard. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
11.Customs Union Technical Regulation TR TS 023/2011 (2011): Technical Regulation on Fruit and Vegetable Juice Products. Moscow, Os-89.
12.Zhu A., Zhang Y., Liang M., Zhou Y., Zhou A., Dai H. (2010): New columnar apple variety for juice concentrated. In: Proc. XVII Int. Horticult. Congr. On Science and Horticulture for People (Portugal, August 22-27, 2010). Lisbon. 1: 206-209.
13.Jacob H.B. (2010): The Meaning of the Columnar AppleTree System (CATS) for the Market in Futur. Geisenheim, The Geisenheim Research Institute.
Nigmatyanova S.E., Mursalimova G.R. (2016): Introduction of ornamental representatives of Malus Mill. in the Urals region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 82-88. (In Russian, English abstract). Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/4/52.pdf Currently, the experts number about 50 apple varieties that have a direct decorative purpose. In the diversity of species that grow on the territory of Russia, this country is second only to China. The introduced species and varieties of ornamental apple trees were studied in conditions of the Orenburg region. From the combination of external signs: the size and shape of the crown, the structure and color of the leaves, the size and color of flowers and fruits, the conclusions of the maximum degree of decorative introduced species and varieties of decorative apple trees were made. Introduced decorative apple-trees (Malus fusca (Raf.) C.K.Schneid., Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehder, Malus transitoria (Batal.) C.K.Schneid. Sektio Sorbemalus., ‘Makamik’, ‘Hålen’ and ‘Karmen’) are highly resistant to abiotic factors in conditions of steppe of the Orenburg region and can be used in parks, gardens and squares parkways, along streets and roads.
1.Zakotenko S.N. (2007): Biomorphological peculiarities of perspective samples of small-fruit apple-tree weeping forms in Donbass. Industrial botany. 7: 176-183. (In Russian, English abstract).
2.Lapin P.I., Sidneva S.V. (1973): Prospect rating of introduction of woody plants according to visual observations. In: Experience of introduction of woody plants. Moscow, Science: 7-68 (In Russian).
3.Mursalimova G.R., Nigmatyanova S.E. (2016): Introduction of ornamental crops in Southern Ural. Subtropical and ornamental plants, 57: 42-47. (In Russian, English abstract).
4.Mursalimova G.R., Khardikova S.V., Tikhonova M.A. (2012): The theory of the origin centers of Malus Mill. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 34(2): 62-67. (In Russian, English abstract).
5.Nigmatyanova S.E. (2012): Biomorphological especially promising species and varieties of apple for green building on the example of the steppe and forest-steppe zone of Southern Urals [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Orenburg, Orenburg State Pedagogical University. (In Russian).
6.Nigmatyanova S.E. (2011): Assessment of decorative characteristics of the Malus Mill. family representatives in Orenburg. Izvestia Orenburg State Agrarian University, 3(31-1): 298-301. (In Russian, English abstract).
7.Nigmatyanova S.E., Mursalimova G.R. (2015): Vegetative reproduduction of introduced species of decorative apple trees in the Orenburg region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 42: 338-341. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Aleksandrova M.S. (2014): Decorative apples. Garden on Russia,4: 15-17. (In Russian).
9.Nigmatyanova S.E., Mursalimova G.R. (2016): Optimization of timing of cuttings of woody ornamental crops are promising for planting in the southern Urals. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 46: 280-283. (In Russian, English abstract).
10.Nigmatyanova S.E., Mursalimova G.R. (2015): Evaluation of decorativeness of introduced representatives of the genus Malus Mill. in Orenburg region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 42: 342-346. (In Russian, English abstract).
11.Nigmatyanova S.E., Mursalimova G.R., Merezhko O.E. (2016): Assessment of the prospects of introduction of representatives of ÌalusÌill. in Orenburg. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 46: 284-287. (In Russian, English abstract).
12.Sedina Y.V. (2010): Ornamental apple. Nursery and garden, 2: 16-21. (In Russian).