Yakushina, L.G., Matskiv, A.Î., Shhalahova, R.M., & Manakhova, K.A. (2022). Genome size variability of cultivars and hybrids of garden chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x hortorum Bailey) of the FRC SSC RAS collection. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 1-13. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2022_0301 Garden chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × hortorum) is one of the leading flowers and ornamental crops in the world. Garden chrysanthemum breeding is carried out with the predominantly usage of classical breeding methods (interspecific and intervarietal crosses, open pollination), as well as modern methods for obtaining new adapted cultivars. For the selection of parental individuals and directed crosses, it is necessary to know the size of the genome of the parental forms. In this work, we have studied the genome size of 12 hybrids and 28 cultivars, which are of interest as a source of agronomically valuable traits. The studied hybrids were obtained at the Federal Research Center of the SSC RAS and are adapted to the growing conditions in the subtropics of Russia. Most of the cultivars (24) are from the Netherlands, 3 cultivars have been bred in the Federal Research Centre the Subtropical Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Sochi, Russia) and 1 cultivar has been selected in the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens – National Scientific Center of the RAS (Russia). Of the two nuclei extraction buffers (Tris-Mg and WPB), the WPB buffer is more efficient, since there is less degradation of nuclei during sample preparation and the coefficient of variation is lower. The results showed that the genome size in the collection varied from 8.48 to 20.41 pg. The maximum genome size was 20.49 and 18.39 pg in hybrids S-250-1 and Zh-116-2, respectively. The minimum genome size was 8.48; 9.3 and 10.5 pg in Desna Pink, Annecy White and Westland red, respectively. Studies have shown that some hybrids derived from the seeds of Mona Lisa have a different genome size than the maternal parent. It has been found that the related Yuzhnaya and Symphonia have different genome sizes, which presumably correspond to 6n and 4n sets of chromosomes, respectively. Based on the results obtained for the genome size, it can be assumed that 67.5 % of the samples of the collection are tetraploids, 22.5 % of the samples are hexaploids, 2.5 % are pentaploids and 7.5 % of the plants are diploids. These data will be useful for breeding and searching for correlations with phenotypic traits. At the same time, large-flowered chrysanthemums of the FRC SSC RAS collection have a smaller genome size and, presumably, a diploid and tetraploid set of chromosomes, while small-flowered cultivars and hybrids are tetraploids and hexaploids. In the future, it is necessary to continue studying the collection in order to find out whether among the large-flowered chrysanthemums there are hexaploids and plants with even higher ploidy.
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22.Ma, Y.-P., Wei, J.-X., Yu, Z.-Y., & Qin, B. (2015) Characterization of ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum L. by flow cytometry. Journal of Forestry Research, 26(3), 771-775. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-015-0071-7.
23.Miao, H.B., Chen, F.D., & Zhao, H.B. (2007). Genetic Relationship of 85 Chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × Grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitamura] Cultivars Revealed by ISSR Analysis. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 34(5), 1243-1248.
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28.Su, J., Jiang, J., Zhang, F., Liu, Y., Ding, L., Chen, S., & Chen, F. (2019), Current achievements and future prospects in the genetic breeding of chrysanthemum: a review. Horticulture Research, 6, 109. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-019-0193-8.
29.Tsukaya, H. (2002). Leaf anatomy of a rheophyte, Dendranthema yoshinaganthum (Asteraceae), and of hybrids between D. yoshinaganthum and a closely related non-rheophyte, D. indicum. Journal of Plant Research, 115(5), 329-333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-002-0041-y. EDN: BBCZGA.
30.Van Geest, G. (2017). Disentangling hexaploid genetics: towards DNA-informed breeding for postharvest performance in chrysanthemum (PhD Thesis). Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.https://doi.org/10.18174/420068.
31.Yang, W.H., Glover, B.J., Rao, G.-Y., & Yang, J. (2006). Molecular evidence for multiple polyploidization and lineage recombination in the Chrysanthemum indicum polyploid complex (Asteraceae). New Phytologist, 171(4), 875-886. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01779.x.
32.Zhao, H.-B., Chen, F.-D., Chen, S.-M., Wu, G.-S., & Guo, W.-M. (2010). Molecular phylogeny of Chrysanthemum, Ajania and its allies (Anthemideae, Asteraceae) as inferred from nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F IGS sequences. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 284(3/4), 153-169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-009-0242-0.
Smirnova, A.N., & Skrotskaya, O.V. (2022). Taxonomical and ecological-biological analysis of woody plants of the Rosaceae family in the arboretum of the botanical garden at the institute of biology Komi SC UB RAS. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 14-23. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2022_0302 The collection of woody plants in the Botanical Garden of the Institute of Biology has been formed for over 70 years and includes about 500 taxa. The Rosaceae family representatives gain special attention in the collection. Many of them have high decorative qualities and are adaptable to new soil and climatic conditions. So, the Rosaceae plants can be widely used. The analysis of the arboretum collection in various aspects allows for the identification of plants properties, opportunities and directions of introduction. The taxonomic analysis of the Rosaceae family collection showed its species and cultivar diversity. The collection includes woody plants of 24 genera. The Spiraea L., Rosa L., and Cotoneaster Medik. genera are represented by a high number of taxa, 39 (36.6 %), 23 (15.7 %), and 14 species (9.8 %), respectively. The cultivars form a large group of 44 taxa. By natural habitation areas, the species are divided into the following groups: the East Asian species – 23, the North American species – 19 species, the Eurasian species – 18, the Far Eastern, Siberian with some East Asian species – 26, and the European species – 14. The climatic conditions between the Komi Republic, Siberia and North America are similar. The introducents from East Asia are valuable for cultivation with many species-diverse genera. By the analysis of vital forms, shrubs form a dominating group (113 taxa), two of which are evergreen. The vital form of shrubs exhibits a great ecological plasticity and provides for high winter hardiness which is an important factor for the North. Trees include 32 taxa; two species are evergreen subshrubs. 112 taxa representatives have high winter hardiness properties. The policy priority of widening the collection of the arboretum is to increase the number of species and cultivars of plants from zones with similar climatic conditions with shrub vital form and valuable economic qualities.
1.Taskaev, A.I. (Ed.). (1997). The Atlas of Climate and Hydrology of the Komi Republic. Moscow: Drofa, Dik. (In Russian).
2.Bobrovskaya, V.E., Bobrov, Yu.A., & Kuznetsova, Ya.V. (2017). Trees and shrubs in the flora of Syktyvkar. Vestnik of Orenburg State Pedagogical University, 1, 1-19. EDN: YHMDNP. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Emelyanova, O.Yu., Tsoi, M.F., Pavlenkova, G.A., Firsov, A.N., & Masalova, L.I. (2018). Results of introduction of species of the family Rosaceae Juss. gene pool All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crops Breeding. Vestnik of the Russian Agricultural Science, 6, 30-33. https://doi.org/10.30850/vrsn/2018/6/30-33. EDN: YOYJIL.(In Russian, English abstract).
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6.Martynov, L.G. (2015). The introduction studies of woody plants in the Botanical Garden at the Institute of Biology, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. In Botanical collections – the national treasure of Russia: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 259-261). Penza: Penza State University. EDN: TOSFPX. (In Russian).
7.Miftakhova, S.A., Skrotskaya, O.V., & Zainullina, K.S. (2017). Biology of the rare species of Pentaphylloides fruticosa (Rosaceae) in culture in the North. Proceedings of the Komi Science Centere of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2, 30-36. EDN: ZBEZFT. (In Russian, English abstract).
8.Pavlenkova, G.A. & Emelyanova, O.Yu. (2021). Taxonomic and chorological analysis of the beautifully flowering shrubs of the VNIISPK arboretum. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 20-30. https://doi.org/10.24411/23126701_2021_0303. EDN: MIEHAE. (In Russian, English abstract).
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11.Skrotskaya, O.V., & Punegov, V.V. (2021). The content of carotenoids in plant fruits of SorbusL. species and varieties when introduced in the North (Komi Republic). Samara Journal of Science, 10(3), 112-116. https://doi.org/10.17816/snv2021103116. EDN: TGVGYQ. (In Russian, English abstract).
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13.Skupchenko, L.A., Punegov, A.N., & Zainullina, K.S. (2016). The Cotoneaster Medik. species grown in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic (Russia). Proceedings of the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, 30-36. EDN: VRATKR. (In Russian, English abstract).
14.Smirnova, A.N., & Zainullina, K.S. (2017). Biomorphological characteristics of some species of the genus Spiraea L. in culture in the European Northåast (Republic of Komi). Proceedings of the Komi Science Centre of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, 28-35. EDN: YIEGAH. (In Russian, English abstract).
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16.Tolstikova, T.N., & Ednich, E.M. (2007). Taxonomic composition, life forms and geography of the introduced species of the Rosaceae Adans family in the collection of the ASU arboretum. Bulletin of the Adyghe State University. Series 4: Natural-Mathematical and Technical Sciences, 4, 102-106. EDN: KBXDHF. (In Russian).
17.Chukuridi, S.S. (2004). Biological features of introducents of the Rosaceae Adans family and the possibility of their use in horticulture of the North-Western Caucasus(Biol. Sci. Doct. Thesis). Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar, Russia. EDN: NHNELB. (In Russian).
Titova, J.G., & Kurashev, O.V. (2022). Qualitative analysis of russian gooseberry cultivars included in the state register of breeding achievements. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 24-37. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2022_0303 The authors provide a qualitative analysis of the main economically useful characteristics of gooseberry cultivars included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use. This work is designed to facilitate and simplify the procedure for choosing certain cultivars for both industrial producers of products of this crop and for amateur gardeners. Currently (for 2022), there are 55 cultivars of gooseberries in the State Register. At the same time, the analysis of the assortment of gooseberries included in the State Register shows a wide diversity of cultivars according to the main economically useful characteristics, i.e. resistance to unfavorable abiotic (frost resistance) and biotic factors (tolerance to American powdery mildew), habit of bushes (including the nature of bush growth, optimally corresponding to the conditions of machine harvesting), commercial qualities of berries (weight, color in biological ripeness, taste characteristics and high technological qualities), various maturation periods (from early to late ripening), the thorniness of the shoots (from practically thornless to strongly thorny shoots). The distribution area (zoning) of cultivars from the State Register covers almost the entire area of the Russian Federation (12 regions of the Russian Federation). However, there is a significant variation in the number of zoned cultivars in the regions themselves, with the smallest number of cultivars noted in the North Caucasus (2 cultivars) and the Lower Volga (3 cultivars) regions. The largest number of cultivars are zoned in the West Siberian (20 cultivars) and Ural (17 cultivars) regions. And although the analysis showed the presence of an insignificant part of the cultivars with an optimal complex of economically valuable characteristics, nevertheless, most of the cultivars are characterized by individual pronounced traits. This provides the basis for further breeding work with gooseberries, so that modern cultivars are characterized by the most optimal set of characteristics that meet the needs of modern producers, in particular, meeting the requirements of machine harvesting. An important criterion for gooseberry cultivars is high ecological plasticity and a wide range of maturation periods, which would allow expanding the distribution area (zoning) of this valuable crop in most regions of the Russian Federation.
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3.Anonymous (2022).State Register for Selection Achievements Admitted for Usage (National List). Plant varieties (official publication) (Vol. 1. pp 415-416). Moscow: FGBNU "Rosinformagrotekh". (In Russian).
4.Eremin, G.V., Isachkin, A.V., Kazakov, I.V., Kuminov, E.P., Plekhanova M.N., & Sedov E.N. (2004). General and private selection and variety of fruit and berry crops (pp. 386-393). Moscow: Mir. EDN: QKWCLN (In Russian).
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10.Kurashev, O.V. (2015). Some results of breeding gooseberries at VNIISPK. In Competitive varieties and technologies for highly efficient gardening: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 114-118). Orel: VNIISPK. EDN: UQDZWD (In Russian, English abstract).
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17.Pupkova, N.A. (2011). Breeding of gooseberries at the Leningrad fruit and vegetable experimental station: results and prospects. In Gardening in the North-West of Russia: history and development prospects: Proc. Sci. Conf., (pp. 39-47). St. Petersburg : SSIN-WRIAME of the RAAS. EDN: WKMHPD (In Russian).
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19.Sorokopudov, V.N., Kalugina, S.V., Kukharuk, N.S., Evtukhova, M.V., & Ivanova Yu.Yu. (2020). Selection assessment of gooseberry varieties for suitability for mechanized harvesting. Bulletin of KSAU, 4, 80-87. https://doi.org/10.36718/1819-4036-2020-4-80-87. EDN: NAZCOB (In Russian, English abstract).
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Seredin, T.M., Golubkina, N.A., Agafonov, A.F., Molchanova, A.V., Marcheva, M.M., Shumilina, V.V.,& Golubev, F.V. (2022). Changes in the main biochemical indicators in perennial onions, depending on the age of plants. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 38-45. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2022_0304 In these studies, seven species of perennial onions were studied: Allium altaicum Pall., A. fistulosum L., A. ramosum L., A. obliquum L., A. erubescens K. Koch, A. nutans L. and A. schoenoprasum L.. The study of the collection of perennial onions was carried out in the conditions of the Moscow region (Odintsovo district). The plants were grown directly by sowing seeds in the ground on the ridges, according to the scheme: 45 × 5 cm. The collection nursery of perennial onions was represented by 12 cultivars for which studies were conducted in the vegetation conditions of 2017—2021. Depending on the age of the plant of perennial onions, we determined the active growth of the bush. The maximum growth was observed in the A. ramosum L. cultivar Aprior from 32.1 g to 265.8 g (variation in plant weight) over five years of growth and development. The same development trend was noted in the A. altaicum Pall. cultivar Alves and the A. nutans L. cultivar Lider. But it should be noted that for the A. fistulosum L. cultivar Russky Zimniy, this trend was not typical. A. fistulosum L. formed large leaves and stems in the first year of vegetation; the weight of the plant in the second year of study in Russky Zimniy was 89,3 g and in Troitsa it was 79.5 g). It is shown that according to the results of the obtained data, the mass of the plant of two cultivars (Russkiy Zimniy and Troitsa) increased twice in each year of the studies. The main biochemical parameters were identified according to classical methods of determination. In our studies, interspecific and intercultivar differences in the content of dry matter, vitamin C and monosaccharides were determined. Ranges of variation of the dry matter content in the leaves of perennial onions were 10.61—21.66 %, ascorbic acid: 46.61—66.02 mg% and sugars: 1.07—3.11 %. The content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll A and B, carotenoids) in the cultivars of perennial onions was divided into several groups depending on the value of the parameter and the variability affected by the plant species. According to the content of photosynthetic pigments, it was determined that the active accumulator of both chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B was the A. erubescens K. Koch cultivar Charodey (2.20 mg/g and 1.18 mg/g).
1.Agafonov, A.F., Seredin, T.M., & Dubova, M.V. (2018). Use of species diversity in breeding Allium D. In Vegetable and melon growing: historical aspects, current state, problems and prospects of development: Proc. Sci. Conf. (Vol.1, pp. 19-24). Obukhov: FOP Gulyaeva V.M. (In Russian).
2.Goncharov, A.V., Seredin, T.M., Shumilina, V.V., & Golubev, F.V. (2022). Onion schnitt (Allium schoenoprasum L.): the main morphometric features and biochemical parameters. Bulletin of the Russian Agrarian Correspondence University, 40, 8-11. EDN: ZZQBIZ. (In Russian, English abstract).
3.Ivanova, M.I., Bukharov, A.F., Baleev, D.N., Bukharova, A.R., Kashleva, A.I., Seredin, T.M., & Razin, O.A. (2019). The biochemical composition of Allium L. leaves under the environmental conditions of the Moscow region. Achievements of Science and Technology in Agro-Industrial Complex, 33(5), 47-50. https://www.doi.org/10.24411/0235-2451-2019-10511. EDN: ZNDOCX. (In Russian, English abstract).
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11.Sachivko, T.V., & Bosak, V.N. (2016). Features of the development of various types of perennial bows. In Prospects of scientific support of vegetable growing. Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 41-43). Samokhvalovichi: Institute for Vegetable Growing. EDN: NUNNOH. (In Russian).
13.Friesen, N., Borisjuk, N., Mes, T.H.M., Klaas, M., & Hanelt, P. (1997). Allotetraploid origin of Allium altyncolicum (Alliaceae, Allium sect. Schoenoprasum) as investigated by karyological and molecular markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 206, 317-335.
14.Priecina, L., & Karlina, D. (2013). Total polyphenol, flavonoid content and antiradical activity of celery, dill, parsley, onion and garlic dried in conventive and microwave-vacuum dryer. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, 53, 107-112. https://www.doi.org/10.7763/IPCBEE
Nevostrueva, E.Yu., & Andreeva, G.V. (2022). Modern assortment of raspberries of summer type of fruiting for the Volga-Vyatka region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 46-52. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2022_0306 The conditions of the Middle Urals are not favorable for most of the introduced cultivars of such a popular crop as raspberries. In connection with the increasing negative factors of the growing season in recent years, the resistance of raspberry cultivars to them is of no small importance. Especially to arid conditions, since the sensitivity of the culture to this abiotic environmental factor is known. Over the past ten years, the zoned assortment for the Volga-Vyatka region has been replenished with 5 cultivars of the Sverdlovsk breeding and 1 cultivar of the same breeding was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements for the West Siberian Region. This paper presents the research results for new zoned raspberry cultivars for the period from 2003 to 2021. Early ripening raspberry cultivars Alaya Rossyp, Lel, Vanda and cultivars of medium ripening Barkhatnaya, Antares and Fregat were studied. Lyubitelskaya Sverdlovska and Vysokaya were taken as control cultivars. The studies were carried out on a complex of economically valuable traits according to the generally accepted method of cultivar study. High winter hardiness over the entire period of the research was shown by the early-ripening cultivar Alaya Rossyp and the medium-term cultivar Antares, the degree of freezing of which did not exceed 1.0 points. In terms of yield compared to the control, Vanda (6.52 t/ha), Alaya Rossyp (6.08 t/ha) and Antares (7.73 t/ha) stood out. The most large-fruited of the studied cultivars was Fregat, the average berry weight of which was 3.6 g, the weight of the berry in the first harvest was 5.0 g. Also, large berries were in the early cultivars Vanda and Lel (3.1—3.3 g) and mid-season cultivar Antares – 3.4 g. All of the studied cultivars were resistant to raspberry beetle, there was less than 5.0% of damaged berries in the yield. They also had very weak (1.0 points) or weak (2.0 points) damage by purple and white spots of young shoots.
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2.Andreeva, G.V. (2021). Modern assortment of strawberries and raspberries for the Urals.In 90 years in the service of the agro-industrial complex of the Urals: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 230-235). Chelyabinsk: ChelGU.EDN: GQNDSP. (In Russian).
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11.Kotov, L.A. (2010). Innovative results of the creation of the Ural varieties of pome fruit crops as the basis for the modernization of fruit growing in the Urals. In Scientific support for adaptive horticulture of the Ural region: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 38-45). Yekaterinburg. EDN: WHLTSR. (In Russian).
12.Kulikov, I.M., Evdokimenko, S.N., Tumaeva, T.A., Kelina, A.V., Sazonov, F.F., Andronova, N.V., & Podgaetsky, M.A.(2021). Scientific support of small fruit growing in Russia and prospects for its development. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 25(4), 414-419. https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ21.046. EDN: ASGGAN. (In Russian, English abstract).
13.Sedov, E.N., & Gruner, L.A. (Eds.). (2014). Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops (Vol. 5, pp. 112-177). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
Timusheva, O.K. (2022). The effects of root formation stimulators on the rooting of softwood cuttings of black currant cultivars. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 53-67. https://www.doi.org/10.52415/23126701_2022_0305 The article presents the results on vegetative propagation in 2021 by the method of softwood cuttings of five black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars from various selections in the conditions of the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic. The softwood currant cuttings were prepared in the first decade of July and then planted in a cold greenhouse. The cuttings were kept in distilled water before planting using the rooting stimulators as Kornevin and Epin-extra (Epin). Without taking into account the result of the control group, about 76.0—90.4 % of softwood cuttings rooted and 66.7—68.8 % of them became acclimatized (survived). The results on rooting and survival of cuttings underlined the importance of stimulants and also confirmed it in view of formalized statistical analysis. In the middle of the second August decade, we dug out the cuttings of each cultivar kept in Kornevin, Epin before planting and those from the control, counted the number of zero- and first-order roots, and measured the length of zero-order roots. The use of root formation stimulants has a positive effect on the number of zero- and first-order roots regardless of the cultivar. It also favors the formation of zero-order roots of the black currant cultivars under consideration; this effect is statistically significant. The most confident conclusions about the significance of stimulants for the formation of zero-order roots in cuttings can be drawn for the cultivars Vologda and Elevesta (the maximum tfact values among all cultivars). For the majority of the studied black currant cultivars, the use of root formation stimulants has a positive effect on the average root length of the cutting except for the cultivars Elevesta and Lentay. For any cultivar with disregard for the environmental conditions, it averages 3.4—6.7 cm. Between the cultivars, the difference in the average root length with regard to the environmental conditions is 0.1—1.8 cm. The rooting stimulants Kornevin and Epin are efficient for vegetative propagation of softwood cuttings of black currant cultivars in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic.
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13.Timusheva, O.K., & Zainullina, K.S. (2012). The role of Epin-extra in green cutting of black currant in the middle taiga subzone of the Komi Republic. In Actual Problems of Ecology: materials of the VIII International scientific and practical conference (pp.70-72). Grodno: Grodno State University named Ya. Kupala. (In Russian).
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