GENETICS, BREEDING, STUDY OF VARIETIES
The results of apple breeding for 60 years are given. Generally, apple varieties were developed from simple intervarietal crossings in 80…90s of the last century. These varieties have enriched the present assortment (Orlovskoye polosatoye, Orlik, Sinap orlovsky, Veteran, etc.). Many of these varieties have been widely introduced in the industrial, amateur and house holding orchards of Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine.
On the next stage of the breeding activity of the All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding the great attention is paid to the development of the first in Russia scab immune and triploid apple varieties. For this purpose, multiple stepped crossings have been carried out. The varieties having immunity to scab and a triploid set of chromosomes are of special interest (Rozhdestvenskoye, Maslovskoye, Yubilar and Yablochny Spas). Work targeted to the development of scab immune columnar apple varieties for intensive orchards have been started.
The results of a 13-year-long investigation are given. The investigation has been directed to the development of a population of hybrid dwarf forms with a high adaptive potential in conditions of the Central Chernozem Region of Russia on the ground of crossing donors of high winter hardiness and resistance to diseases of various genetic origin with donors of monogenically determined dwarfing, which are progenies of the fourth generation from «Nain Vert» and they are heterozygous due to D gene of dwarfing.
It is shown that as a result of such crossings the progenies have been obtained, which combine high winter hardiness with monogenically determined dwarfing. The output of dwarf seedlings was a bit more than 50%, on the average. The morphological features (mainly, shortened internodes – 0,5...0,8 sm) of hybrid seedlings already give a chance to divide progenies into 2 groups, dwarfs and common seed-lings, in the first – second year.
Complex donors have been obtained. They combine dwarfism with high winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases (DK-2, DK-12).
In conditions of the Moscow area features of formation of elements of efficiency at three most winter-hardy varieties of a sweet cherry are investigated at an inoculation on clonal stocks. In an initial stage of fructification loading of trees by floral kidneys, character of their accommodation on annual branches and fruit branches is determined. At variety Fatezh of 36.3% of the kidneys pawned on annual branches, were floral, and variety Tyutchevka was characterized by the greatest efficiency of an annual gain. The analysis of an arrangement of fruit branches has shown, that 60…70% of them are concentrated on two-year-old branches, and only about 10% - on four-year-old branches. At trees of variety Fatezh the greatest quantity of fruit formations, both as a whole, and counting upon 1 item of m of branches was formed. They have been in regular more intervals placed on a crone. High loading fruit formations was characteristic and for variety Tyutchevka, but they are less durable, and 90% of fruit formationswere on two-year branches.
At variety Chermashnaya of fruit formations was less, and the basic part has been concentrated on two-year-old branches. Loading fruit kidneys was maximal at trees of variety Tyutchevka, a little bit below at variety Fatezh and the least - at variety Chermashnaya. In structure of formation of biological efficiency at variety Fatezh floral kidneys on long-term fruit wood prevail: on fruit formations it is pawned more than 60% of floral kidneys. At variety Tyutchevka on a share of an annual gain 51% of all floral kidneys are necessary, and at variety Chermashnaya - more than 70%. Are established distinctions on efficiency of varieties and degrees of realization of biological efficiency on a crop. Variety Fatezh combines in the genotype high biological potential with maximal his realization on a crop of fruits. Variety Chermashnaya has economical floral potential and at rather small biological efficiency is capable to provide good productivity. Variety Tyutchevka pawns the greatest quantity of floral kidneys, but only the quarter from them is realized in fruits.
Some results of plum breeding for the improvement of the regionalized assortment in the Moldova Republic are given. Four new plum varieties developed at the Research-Practical Institute of Horticulture, Viniculture and Food Technologies of the Moldova Republic are described. Authors: Khramov E. S., Zhuravel A. M. The varieties were regionalized and included in the Catalogue of Plant Cultivars of the Moldova Republic in 2010…2014.
Characteristics of new varieties of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) developed at the Primorski Fruit-Berry Experimental Station and included in the State Register in 2011…2012 are given. The varieties of the intensive type are precocious, highly productive and of fine fruit flavour.
The results of five-year studies of martagon lily (Lilium martagon L.) in three isolated populations in conditions of Orel region are given. Phenological rhythms of the development, morphological and biological features have been investigated.
Essential distinctions in the dates of blooming have been determined both between plants of different populations and between separate plants within populations. In each of the populations the distinction in the dates of blooming beginning is 26…30 days between early blooming and late blooming plants and 2 months between populations. Early blooming selections were located in «Shakhvsky Les» and «Khutor-Step», late blooming selections were located in «Verkhovye», which blooming started early in June and early in August, respectively.
White speckled lily selections have been found, 3,7…5,5% fall to their share.
11 white lily selections as well as 105 plants with very early blooming dates (early in June) and 18 plants with very late blooming dates (the first decade of August) have been singled out for the further use in breeding as sources of valuable characters.
PHYSIOLOGY OF FRUIT CROPS
The results of water regime study of fruit and ornamental crops in the nursery are given in this article. It was revealed that the water content of leaves of fruit seedlings, such as pear, apple, cherry and plum, was directly dependent on a dose of mineral fertilizers. In shrubby species, such as honeysuckle, barberry and spiraea, that relationship was less pronounced.
Maximum values of leaf transpiration rates of fruit seedlings were noted in the variant with N264P240K264 doze of mineral fertilizers. In shrubby species the maximum transpiration rate was observed on N132P120K132 and N198P180K198 background.
BIOCHEMISTRY OF FRUIT CROPS
Characteristics of scab immune apple varieties of winter maturing developed at the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding are given by marketability and biochemical composition of fruit. The research results are given according to the following components of the biochemical composition: contents of soluble dry substances, sum of sugars, titrated acids, ascorbic acid, pectin substances, P-active compounds and sugar-acid index. It has been confirmed that new apple varieties do not yield to regionalized control varieties and even exceed them in a number of studied indices. The varieties having the best biochemical composition and marketability of fruits have been noted. The varieties having the greatest stability of traits and recommended for the further use in breeding for improved biochemical composition of fruits have been singled out. Bolotovskoye, Veniaminovskoye, Imrus, Kandil Orlovsky, Rozhdestvenskoye and Svezhest have been recommended for a wide application in the fruit industry as varieties with a complex of favorable qualities.
Black currant significantly exceeds a majority of fruit and berry crops in the contents of ascorbic acid and phenol compounds in berries. Having perfect technological qualities, black currant is a good raw material for processing and thus an excellent source of vitamins in winter and spring. In connection with the development of amateur gardening the cultivars with desert taste of berries have been of great importance lately. For the purpose of the development of new cultivars it is necessary to have proper initial forms. In this paper the biochemical characteristics of black currant cultivars of Ukrainian breeding cultivated in conditions of Orel district are given. The following cultivars have been studied: Alta, Ametist, Vernisazh, Vladimirskaya, Zorya Galitskaya, Kazatskaya, Chereshneva and Yubileinaya Kopanya. The cultivars have been estimated and compared with Orlovskaya Serenada as a control cultivar (developed at the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding) in the contents of basic biochemical components in berries: soluble dry substances, sum of sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acid, phenol compounds and sugar-acid index.
As a result, Kazatskaya and Chereshneva are recommended for use in breeding for the improved composition of berries as sources of a complex of desirable biochemical features (soluble dry substances, sugars, organic acids, sugar-acid index, phenol compounds and ascorbic acid) both for industrial and amateur orchards in conditions of Orel district. Vladimirskaya is of interest due to higher contents of soluble dry substances, sugars, ascorbic acid and phenol compounds; Vernisazh – soluble dry substances, sugars and phenol compounds. Ametist is valuable for the combination of high contents of ascorbic acids and phenol compounds with low acidity.
PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF FRUIT AND BERRY CROPS
The suitability of new scab immune and highly resistant apple varieties for various kinds of processing has been studied. The varieties, which are the best ones for compote, varenie, jam and juice production, have been singled out. It is shown that Maslovskoe, Rozhdestvenskoe and Spaskoe are especially valuable for processing; they have improved technological features for the production of all kinds of preserves.