The degrees of cane freezing of erected, trailing and semi-erected blackberries were estimated by points after winters in 2014–2017 with minimal temperatures -24.5°C (2015), -29.3°C (2016) in January and -31.5°C (2017) in February, respectively. In October the blackberry plants were covered with synthetic material Agrotex (60 g/m2) by one layer. A part of plants were left without covering. In early April the covering was put off. Four cultivars (Agawam, Erie, Thornfree and Texas) and selective forms of blackberries (seedlings from the open pollination of cultivars Black Satin, Cheyenne, Loch Ness and hybrid Thornfree × R. Caucasicus) were studied. The influence of TUR retardant on the blackberry winter hardiness was estimated on three genotypes: erected cultivar Erie, semi-erected seedling of cultivar Black Satin and trailing cultivar Thornfree.
When covering, all of the studied genotypes overwintered well without damaging of the most productive (middle) part of the canes. Among the plants left without covering, trailing genotypes were severely frozen in conditions of three mentioned winters; erected and semi-erected genotypes were insignificantly damaged during the first two winters, while during the third winter they were significantly frozen. Cultivar Agawam was mostly winter hardy, it overwintered with minimal damages.
The treatment with 0.1% solution of TUR retardant during the period of active growth of blackberry canes positively influenced upon the cultivar Thornfree with intensive protracted growth in the first and third winter as well as on the semi-erected selection (seedling of Black Satin) in winter 2016–2017. The same treatment did not noticeably influenced upon the winter hardiness of the erected cultivar Erie.
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The basic winter hardiness components were studied in the laboratory of physiology of resistance of fruit plants of Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding in 2014–2016. Annual shoots of 20 ornamental tree and bush species of different ecological and geographical origin growing in the arboretum of the institute were studied. The resistance to early winter frosts, the index of maximal frost hardiness in the middle of winter, frost hardiness during winter thaws and the resistance to returned frosts at the end of winter were studied under the controlled conditions. The aim of the research was to study the basic winter hardiness components of ornamental wood species of the local flora and introduced plants and to reveal the plants resistant to climatic conditions of winter in the middle zone of Russia. As a result, at the beginning of winter it was determined that all studied ornamental species had high frost resistance of buds and tissues of annual shoots. In the middle of the winter buds and wood were mostly damaged but the bark was characterized by maximal frost resistance in the majority of the studied species. During the sharp temperature overfalls in winter the buds were damaged mostly. The tissues of the annual shoots showed really high frost resistance. The significant difference in the degree of bud, bark and wood damages was found among the studied species according to winter hardiness components II and III. As a result of the modeling of returned frosts at the end of the winter, high frost hardiness was found in the majority of the studied species. According to the results of the artificial freezing the following plants were distinguished by high frost hardiness: Betula Kelleriana, Betula Raddeana, Acer rubrum, Staphylea pinnata, Cotinus coggygria, Pinus pallasiana. In the group of frost hardy plants were included Betula lenta, Betula pendula f.carelica, Acer saccharinum, Sorbus aria, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus alnifolia, Picea omorica.
The results of apple yield study in the orchards imitating one-variety planting are given. The studies were conducted in the orchards of the All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding in 1983–2014. The experimental plot was planted with two-year-old seedlings on a vigorous seed scion of Antonovka Obyknovennaya seyanetz in 1983. Self-unfruitful apple varieties Orlik, Orlovskoye Polosatoye and Sinap Orlovskiy were taken for study. The experiment was established as one-variety blocks, each variety occupied 4 hectares. The varieties were planted in rows with pollinators at the beginning and in the end of each row (one or two trees). Antonovka Obyknovennaya and Wealthy were taken as the best pollinators for studied varieties. The length of the rows was 224 m and the maximal remoteness from the variety-pollinator was 112 m from one side.
It was determined that apple cultivars Orlovskoye Polosatoye, Orlik and Sinap Orlovskiy did not reduce the yield under the remoteness from the pollinator from each side of the row at the distance up to 112 m. It allows placing the cultivars by blocks with the row length up to 220–230 m and with the pollinators in both ends of the row.
Such method of variety spacing provided good pollination under other favorable conditions – good bee pollination and suitable agronomical practice.
The long-term observation showed great advantages of such plantings in the tending care, chemical treatment, harvesting and fruit putting for cold storage.