GENETICS, BREEDING, STUDY OF VARIETIES
Diploid columnar apple cultivar Vostorg is characterized by a fair correct course of reducing division during microsporogenesis. A number of disorders in the consecutive stages of meiosis is within 10,1…1,8% from a total number of studied microsporocytes. The greatest number of disorders used to be in the initial stages of heterotypic and homotypic divisions. 98,2% of morphologically normal pollen grains were noted in the stage of one-nuclear pollen. Consequently, Vostorg must be a good pollinator when using in crossings and can be successfully used in breeding on a polyploidy level.
The range of varieties of a peach and the nectarine is presented in article, allowing for conditions of the Black Sea and West foothill zones of the North Caucasus to create the conveyor of receipt of fresh production on a table of the consumer, and to prolong this period yes four months.
Researches on the working off of a technique of cultivation of germs of some remote hybrids of genus Cerasus Mill. have been conducted in the conditions of in vitro. Optimum terms of their input in culture have been revealed. Parameters of nutrient mediums with the biologically active supplements positively influencing on the growth and development of microplants have been determined. Combination of culture of germs with clonal micropropagation is offered.
In conditions of the Moscow region the features of formation of productivity elements have been investigated in three most winter-hardy sweet cherry varieties under inoculation on clonal stocks. At the initial stage of fructification the loading of trees by floral buds and the character of their placing on annual branches and sprays were determined. 36.3 % of buds formed on annual branches, were floral in ‘Fatezh’, and ‘Tyutchevka’ was characterized by the greatest efficiency of an annual increment. The analysis of spray placing has shown that 60…70 % of the sprays are concentrated on two-year-old branches, and only about 10 % – on four-year-old branches. ‘Fatezh’ formed the greatest number of sprays, both as a whole, and counting per 1 linear metre of branches. They were situated in more regular intervals on a crown. High loading with fruit formations was characteristic for ‘Tyutchevka’ too, but they were less durable, and 90 % of fruit formations were on two-year-old branches.
‘Chermashnaya’ had less fruit formations and the basic part of them was concentrated on two-year-old branches. ‘Tyutchevka’ had maximal loading with fruit-bearing branchlets, ‘Fatezh’ - a little bit less and ‘Chermashnaya’ had the least loading. In the structure of formation of biological productivity in ‘Fatezh’ the floral buds prevail on long-term fruit wood: on fruit branchlets more than 60 % of floral buds are formed. In ‘Tyutchevka’ 51 % of all floral buds were on the annual increments, and more than 70 % in ‘Chermashnaya’. Distinctions in biological productivity of varieties and degrees of the realization of biological efficiency in the yield have been determined. ‘Fatezh’ combines a high biological potential in its genotype with its maximal realization in the yield of fruit. ‘Chermashnaya’ has a thrifty generative potential and at rather small biological efficiency it is capable to provide good productivity. ‘Tyutchevka’ forms the greatest number of floral buds, but only a quarter of them is realized in fruits.
A method of genealogical analysis is valuable for bullace plum gene pool study.
As a result of the genealogical analysis of 136 bullace plum cultivars the donors of breeding-important characters have been singled out: Persikovaya, Rannya Sinya and Ontario as cultivars of early fruit ripening; Anna Shpet, Velikiy Gertzog, Vengerka Domashnya and Tuleu gras as cultivars of late fruit ripening; Anna Shpet, Velikiy Gertzog, Vengerka Italianskaya and Stenley as cultivars with large size of fruit. Bullace plum cultivars have been marked out in which hybrid progeny there are positive transgressions according to the following characters: early maturing (Vengerka Vangengeima, Kabardinskaya Rannya); late maturing (Vengerka Azhanskaya, Renclod Zeliony, Renclod Ullensa). It is advisable to us these cultivars and and their derivatives in breeding programs of bullace plum.
Black currant is the most common culture of Siberia, which is able to meet the needs of people in the polyvitamin and environmentally safe berry products. Modern Buryat varieties combine such valuable qualities as high winter hardiness, productivity, large size of fruits, autogamy, precocity and resistance to fungal diseases and currant bud mite. Such varieties may be used as initial selections. Winter hardiness is a hereditary feature of the genotype to confront a complex of unfavorable winter conditions. Such varieties have a lot of 1…2 year-old branches that better tolerate extreme winter conditions, and a bush easily recovers.
Sea buckthorn is a leading industrial culture in the Baikal region, there is a complex of vitamins, biologically active substances and buckthorn oil as a valuable therapeutic drug in its fruit.
More than 100 various forms have been selected and studied in natural sea-buckthorn thickets in Buryatia. These selections allow breeders to create new high-yielding varieties with various combinations of characters.
The tasks of the breeders included the development of winter-hardy varieties well adapted to local soil and climatic conditions, having a compact crown without thorns and with a yield of 7…10 tones per hectare and with a high content of biologically active substances of fruit.
For the first time the Buryat sea buckthorn varieties Atzula, Aganga and Steppe were admitted for state testing in 1985 and in 1988 they were released in Buryartia.
Since 1980-s Tunka selections of sea buckthorn have been brought to the hybridization and promising hybrids and varieties have been obtained from Tunka male selections crossed with Altai cultivars. For research years 17 Buryat varieties have been developed, most of them are of the Sayan origin: small-sized trees with sweet fruit and high content of biologically active substances.
The technologies of propagation and intensive cultivation have been studied and introduced.
The best method of sea buckthorn propagation in conditions of Buryatia is propagation with soft cuttings in film greenhouses.
Investigations were carried out in the laboratory of physiology of resistance of fruit crops at the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding. 11 variety samples of sea buckthorn of different ecological and geographical origin served as a material. The display of maximum frost hardiness of sea buckthorn variety samples was studied by a method of artificial freezing in winter (December – February) that allowed identifying varietal differences in frost hardiness of buds and primary tissues of shoots. As a result of research the highest level of frost hardiness of buds and tissues was found in December and January. In February the frost hardiness of sea buckthorn buds and tissues was slightly lower in all variety samples, though the majority of sea buckthorn variety samples maintained the frost resistance to critical frosts 38ºC below zero with reversible damages of buds and primary tissues. Startovaya, a variety of the Altai climate type, showed the lowest level of frost hardiness during winter. The buds of those variety were frost damaged most of all.
Phases of micro propagation and rhizogenesis of apomictic plants Pyrus communis L. × Chaenomeles japonica as well as their following adaptation in non-sterile conditions have bee studied. The results are given. It is shown that for the purpose of optimization of the proliferation degree of micro shoots the phase of micro propagation should be carried out with the concentration alternation of cytokinin 6-benzilaminopurine 1 mg/l and 2 mg/l on the background of gibberellic acid. This technique increases both the propagation factor and the height of shoots. An active proliferation of shoots suitable for the rhizogenesis phase begins from the second passage. The rooting phase is more effective when using indole-acetic acid.
The process of inoculation of micro shoots obtained in vitro on a non-sterile rootstock is described. As a result this process increases the output of valuable plants for the further investigations.
PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF FRUIT CROPS
The increase of total phytomass in seven black currant cvs in ontogenesis was estimated. It has been established that biological productivity of two-old plants depends on the initial quality of planting material r=0.904 (Zelyonaya dymka)…0.483 (Tat’yanin den’). In five-year old plants of hybrid cvs there were recorded various indexes of their size (in 5.3 times) and weight (in 1.7 times). Synthesized cvs take intermediate position on UAPKS value between initial parent selections. They are better that Minai Smyryov (
Data obtained in 2008…2010 on 22 black currant variety samples were analyzed for a change in some components of berry chemical composition relative to the meteorological conditions within a vegetative period (April…July). The content of sugar sum (Bertran method), organic acids (0,1 n. extract titrating with sodium hydroxide solution) and sugar-acid index were investigated. Research years were different according to a sum of active temperatures, precipitation accumulation and a hydrothermal coefficient. The effect of meteorological conditions on the accumulation of some biochemical components of black currant berry chemical composition during the vegetative period was determined. We observed direct dependence of sugar sum content on a sum of active temperatures as well as organic (titrate) acids on precipitation accumulation and a hydrothermal coefficient and inverse dependence of the content of soluble dry substances on precipitation accumulation and a hydrothermal coefficient.
As a result of investigations the total water content of raspberry leaves varied within the limits of 59,5…65,0 % in 2009 and 64,2…70,1 % in 2010. Cvs. Kokinskaya, Brigantina and Zhuravlik were characterized by the lowest indices of the initial water content, 50,0…60,3 %.
Volnitsa, Balzam, Peresvet and Sputnitsa demonstrated the maximal indices of water content after 4-hour withering of leaves, 64,0…65,0 %. That group of raspberry cultivars may be characterized as the most drought-resistant one with stable indices of plant water regime at the beginning of fruit-bearing.
In 2010 Brigantina and Zhuravlik were characterized by low indices of water content in leaves after withering, 36,9…42,0 %.
Zhuravlik and Brigantina had maximal water deficit after withering of leaves in 2010, 41,3…35,3%.
Volnitsa, Skromnitsa and Peresvet were characterized by the lowest indices of water deficit after withering, 19,5…20,8 %. That group of cultivars demonstrated the most stable indices of plant water regime during several years.
In 2010 Zhuravlik, Brigantina, Meteor and Sputnitsa showed the greatest restoration ability, 30,7…44,5 %; Peresvet, Skromnitsa and Volnitsa showed the least restoration ability, 20,4…21,2 %.
NURSERY AND AN AGROTECHNICS OF FRUIT CROPS
The effect of foliar spray applications on Mg concentration in Imrus and Sinap Orlovskiy apple flesh and skin has been studied in the field experiment. Some treatments were performed 5 times during the period of vegetation according to the following scheme: 1. control (treatment with water); 2. H3BO3 – 0,1%; 3. K2SO4 – 0,3%; 4. CaCl2 – 1%; 5. H3BO3 + K2SO4; 6. H3BO3 + CaCl2; 7. K2SO4 + CaCl2; 8. H3BO3 + K2SO4 + CaCl2. Foliar sprays had a great effect on Mg accumulation in apple fruit. Authentic variations were observed by years and in the reaction of the studied cultivars. Under the influence of foliar sprays the concentration of Mg more changed in the flesh of Imrus apples and in the skin of Sinap Orlovskiy fruits.
During two years the effect of the following variants was the most stable:
the content of Mg was greater in the Imrus apple flesh than in the control under the treatment with H3BO3 and mixture of H3BO3 + K2SO4;
in Sinap Orlovskiy the increase of Mg concentration in fruit skin was in the following variants: H3BO3 + K2SO4 and H3BO3 + CaCl2.
The article presents the results of studies of the environmental conditions in Gyandzy town. For the last 50 years the environmental tensions has intensified greatly. As a result of technogenic pollution various problems have appeared in the town. Soil and plants have been damaged over large areas. Selection of plants tolerant to existing conditions is the main goal of our research. Fruit plants both of moderate and subtropical zone, belonging to 14 genera and 17 species have been investigated. It has been found that almost all studied fruit plants have high levels of life state. Only a small portion of the total number of feijoa trees (10%) has been completely lost. All the tested species of fruit plants are characterized by their decorativeness.