The studies were carried out on the basis of the laboratory of physiology of fruit plant resistance at the FGBNU VNIISPK in 2014–2016. The material of the studies was of apple dwarf combinations cultivar-rootstock. The main purpose of the present studies was to study the physiological parameters of the water regime of apple cultivar-rootstock combinations in connection with their heat resistance. During the growing season, the water content of the leaves, water losses and restoration of water content after heat shock in summer apple cultivars grown on dwarf rootstock 62-396 and insets 62-396 and 3-17-38 were determined. In the course of the experiment, a high level of water content in the leaves of apple cultivars was established from 71.5 to 73.1% at the beginning of the growing season. The average level of water content of the leaves in the studied of apple cultivar-rootstock combinations from 64.3 to 65.5% was noted during the period of intensive shoot growth, fruit formation (June-August). However, during the years of the study, on average, all the apple cultivar-and-rootctock combinations were characterized by an average level of leaf water content from 65.3 to 66.0%. As a result, there was no significant difference between cultivars, insets and rootstock in the water content of the leaves. It was established that, on average, the Yablochy Spas lost water after a heat shock (34.7%) less than Orlinka (42.7%) on average for two years. The difference between the varieties on loss of water after heat shock at p <0.05 has been reliably proven. At the same time, the cultivars showed the highest water-retaining capacity on the dwarfish rootstock of 62-396 – 102.7%. During the years of research, after the exposure to high-temperature stress (+ 50°C) and water saturation, the studied apple cultivar-and-rootstock tree combinations had a high ability to restore the watered leaves. Analysis of the results of restoration of water content did not reveal a significant difference between cultivars, rootstock and insets. As a result of the experiment with the highest heat-resistance potential, all combinations of the Yablochy Spas and Orlinka were identified on the dwarf rootctock 62-396.
2. Dospekhov, B.A. (1985). Methods of field experiment (with the basics of statistical processing of research results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
3. Leonchenko, V.G., Evseeva, R.P., Zhbanova, E.V., & Cherenkova, T.A. (2007). Preliminary selection of promising genotypes of fruit plants for environmental resistance and biochemical value of fruit. Michurinsk: VNIIGISPR. (In Russian).
4. Ozherelieva, Z.E., Kurashev, O.V., Panfilova, O.V., Bogomolova, N.I., & Golyaeva, O.D. (2015). The realization of resistance potential of berry crops to hyperthermia. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 41, 261-265. (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Ozherelyeva, Z.E., Krasova, N.G., Galasheva, A.M. (2015). Change in the water regime of apple tree leaves during vegetation. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo– Contemporary horticulture, 4, 87-91. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/1/12.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
6. Ozherelieva, Z.E, Krasova, N.G, Galasheva, A.M. (2016). Resistance of apple cultivars on dwarf rootstocks and inserts in conditions of heat shock. Plant Varieties Studying and Protection, 1 (22), 24-27. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Ozherelieva Z.E., Gulyaeva A.A. (2017). The study of the parameters of the water regime of cherries in conditions of drought and heat shock. Achievements of Science and Technology of AIC, 31(8), 46-48. (In Russian, English abstract).
The change of product quality and nutrient content was studied in the fruits of five new scab immune columnar apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding – Vostorg, Zvezda Efira, Poezia, Priokskoye and Sozvezdie developed under the leadership of RAS Academician E.N. Sedov, during the storage at 2°C. The maximum duration of storage 144 days was observed in Zvezda Efira. The studied apple cultivars are assigned to a group of sufficiently resistant cultivars according to a degree of fruit resistance to a majority of damages and diseases. Zvezda Efira and Sozvezdie are less prone to physiological damage. By the end of the storage, the decrease in soluble dry substances content was noted in all cultivars, except Priokskoye. It has been determined that fruit quality of scab immune columnar apple cultivars does not deteriorate after storage but remains on the level of the initial indicator (the content of sugars) or get better (the increase of sugar-acid index and taste improvement due to the decrease in the content of organic acids).
2. Dobrozrakova, T.L., Letova, M.F., & Stepanov, K.M. (1956). Diseases of fruit, berry, nut and subtropical crops. In M.K. Khokhriakov (Ed.). Determinant of plant diseases (pp. 440-458). Moscow, Leningrad: Selkhozgiz. (In Russian).
3. Makarkina, M.A., & Nikitin, A.L. (2011). Effect of storage conditions on the apple quality. Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia, 7, 117-126. Retrieved from http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/11/01/12.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Makarkina, M.A., Pavel, A.R., & Yanchuk, T.V. (2014). Biochemical estimation of gene pool in breeding for improvement of nourishing and salubrious qualities and of fruits and berries. In E.N. Sedov (Ed.). Breeding and variety development of horticultural crops (pp. 99-131). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
5. Ermakov, A.I., Arasimovich, V.V., Yarosh, N.P., Peruanskii, Yu.V., Lukovnikova, G.A. & Ikonnikova, M.I. (1987). Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (Ed.). Leningrad: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
6. Franchuk, E.P. (Ed.). (1983). Research on storage of fruits, berries and grapes. Methodical instructions. Moscow: VÀSKHNIL. (In Russian).
7. Sedov, E.N., Kalinina, I.P., & Smykov, V.K. (1995). Apple breeding. In E.N.Sedov (Eds.), Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding (pp. 159-200). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
8. Sedov, E.N., Zhdanov, V.V., Makarkina, M.A., & Serova, Z.M. (2003). Economic, biological and biochemical evaluation of new scab immune apple varieties. Horticulture and viticulture, 1, 13-16. (In Russian).
9. Sedov, E.N., Makarkina, M.A., & Levgerova, N.S. (2007). Biochemical and technological characteristic of fruits of apple gene pool. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10. Sedov, E.N., & Gudkovsky, V.A. (1999). Study of fruit storeability of pip crops. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.). Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut variety investigation (pp 177-183). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
11. Sedova, Z.A., Leonchenko, V.G., & Astakhov, A.I. (1999). Variety evaluation on chemical composition of fruit. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.). Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut variety investigation (pp 160-167). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
12. Sedova, Z.F., & Makarkina ,M.A. (2004). The value of fruits in human nutrition, their preventive and therapeutic value. In Varieties of Apple and pear. Thorny ways of their selection, creation, study and implementation. (pp 4-5). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
13. Shirko, T.S., & Yaroshevich, I.V. (1991). Biochemical parametrs and quality of fruit. Minsk: Navuka i tehkhnika. (In Russian).
As a result of climate change, not only the increase in the frequency and intensity of abiotic stressors is noted, but also the related change in the optimal rhythm of plant growth and development. Plants adapt adaptively do not have time to adapt to constantly and contrastively changing environmental conditions. In this connection, a task arises in the search for donors and the creation of their basis varieties combining a complex of economically valuable traits with a high adaptive potential. A promising direction for this is the identification of physiological and biochemical indicators of fruit crops that determine the presence of varietal stability, in response to an artificially modeled stress effect. In this connection, the aim of the research was to conduct a physiological and biochemical evaluation of the winter hardiness of plum genotypes based on the activity of the antioxidant defense system and the intensity of LPO processes. As a result of the monitoring of peroxidase activity, proline content and the level of the final product of LPO-malonic dialdehyde, it was shown that the beautiful Veche variety possesses physiological and biochemical characteristics of resistance to conditions I and II of winter hardiness. A weak degree of stability characterized varieties Alenushka and Orel dream. The obtained conclusions on the presence of signs of physiological and biochemical stability are confirmed by the results of a visual evaluation of the damage to the main tissues of annual shoots of the investigated plum varieties.
2. Prudnikov, P.S., Krivushina, D.A., & Gulyaeva, A.A. (2018) Reaction of antioxidant system and intensity of oversour lipids oxidation of Prunus Cerasus l. in response to the hyperthermia effect. Bulletin of Agrarian Science, 1, 30–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.15217/48484 (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Baraboy, V.A., Brekhman, I.I., Golotin, V.G., & Kudryashov, Yu.B. (1992). Lipid peroxidation and stress. Saint Petersburg: Nauka. (In Russian).
4. Prudnikov, P.S., & Gulyaeva, A.A. (2015). Features of hyperthermia effect on hormonal system and antioxidant status of Prunus Cerasus L. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 37-44. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/46.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Merzlyak, M.N. (1989). Activated oxygen and oxidative processes in plant cell membranes. Account of Science and Technology, ser. Plant Physiology (vol. 6). Moscow: VINITI (IN Russian).
6. Holyavka, M.G., Karpova, S.S., Kalaev, V.N., Lepeshkina, L.A., Agapov, B.L., & Artyukhov, V.G. (2014). Assessment of the oxidative status of the plants growing in various conditions. Fundamental Research, 8(4), 891–897. Retrieved from http://www.fundamental-research.ru/pdf/2014/8-4/34690.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Prudnikov, P.S., & Sedov, E.N. (2015). Evaluation of apple resistance to hyperthermia based on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system. Bulletin of Orel State Agrarian University, 6, 79–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.15217/issn1990-3618.2015.6.79. (In Russian, English abstract).
8. Verkhoturov, V.V. (1999). Mutual influence of peroxidase and low-molecular antioxidants during the germination of wheat seeds (Biol. sci. cand. thesis). Siberian Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia. (In Russian).
9. Kolupaev, Yu.E., Weiner, A.A., & Yastreb, T.O. (2014). Proline: physiological functions and regulation of its content in plants under stress conditions. The bulletin of Kharkiv National Agrarian University. Series biology, 2, 6–22. (In Russian, English abstract).
10. Andreeva, V.A. (1988). Peroxidase enzyme. Participation in the plant protective mechanism. Moscow: Nauka.
11. Tyurina, M. M., & Gogoleva, G. A. (1978). Accelerated assessment of frost resistance of fruit and berry plants. Methodological recommendations. Moscow: Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture of Non-chernozem zone. (In Russian).
12. Stalnaya, I.D., & Garishvili, T.G. (1977). A Method of Malonodialdehyde Determining with the Help of Thiobarbituric Acid. In V.I. Orekhovich (ed.) Contemporary methods in biochemistry (pp 66-67). Moscow: Medizina (In Russian).
13. Ermakov, A.I., Arasimovich, V.V., Yarosh, N.P., Peruanskiy, Yu.V., Lukovnikova, G.A. & Ikonnikova, M.I. (1987). Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (Ed.). Leningrad: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
14. Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., & Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205–207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00018060
15. Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Field experiment method (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
Data of technological studies of five new highly adaptive cherry varieties of VNIISPK breeding in comparison with the control variety Turgenevka on the following indicators: juice output, the content of soluble dry substances (SDS) in juice, titrated acids, ascorbic acids (AA), P-active compounds and organoleptic qualities. It is shown that on average the juice output was 72.2%. The highest juice output was in Businka (83.9%) and the lowest one was in Livenskaya (67.1%). The general taste estimation of new varieties was on the level of the control variety or higher (4.5 points). Only the juices of Prevoskhodnaya Veniaminova (4.3 points) and Mikheyevskaya (4,4 points) were inferior to the control. In the content of SDS, Mikheyevskaya (17.7%), Prevoskhodnaya Veniaminova (17.5%) and Putinka (16.2%) were significantly superior to the control (13.1%). Titrated acidity was 1.51% on average when varying from 1.29% (Businka) to 2.10% (Mikheyevskaya). The varieties Putinka (AA 6.2 mg/100 g and P-active substances 255.7 mg/100 g) and Businka (AA 5.3 mg/100 g and P-active substances 200.2 mg/100 g) were distinguished by the content of biologically active substances-antioxidants in the juice.
2. Daskalov, P., Aslanyan, R., Tenov, R., Zhivkov, M., & Bayadzhiev, R. (1969). Fruit and vegetable juice. Moscow: Pishchevaya promyshlennost. (In Russian).
3. Dashkovsky, I. (2018). Cherry stronghold. Weekly “Ú”. Retrieved from https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3529240. (In Russian).
4. Dospekhov, B.A. (1985). Methods of the field experiment (on the base of statistical processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
5. Ermakov, A.I., Arasimovich, V.V., Yarosh, N.P., Peruanskiy, Yu.V., Lukovnikova, G.A., & Ikonnikova, M.I. (1987). Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (Ed.). Leningrad: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
6. Levgerova, N.S., & Leonchenko, V.G. (1999). Technological evaluation of cultivars. In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety trials of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp 168-178). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
7. Anonymous (1993). Methodical regulations on chemical and technological variety investigation of vegetable, fruit and berry crops for canning industry. Moscow. (In Russian).
8. Ruzhenkova, O. (2018). Russia has been recognized as the world leader in the production of cherries. AGRO XXI agroindustrial portal. Retrieved from https://www.agroxxi.ru/rossiiskie-agronovosti/rossiyu-priznali-mirovym-liderom-v-proizvodstve-vishni.html (In Russian).
9. Technical regulations of Customs Union (2011). Technical regulations for juice products from fruits and vegetables TR TS 023/2011 (TR TU 023/2011). Moscow. (In Russian).
Biochemical assessment of sour and sweet cherry cultivars, elite and selected forms of VNIISPK breeding has been carried out for the period 1990–2017. 46 sour cherry genotypes and 15 sweet cherry genotypes were studied on the content of soluble dry substances, sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acid and phenol compounds. As a result of the studies the best genotypes have been allocated on each studied indicator, sweetness and dessert qualities of fruit – sour cherry (sugar sum 11% and more): Antratzitovaya, Vereya, Novella, Otrada, Pamiaty Mashkina, Podarok Uchiteliam, Prevoskhodnaya Kolesnikovoy, Proshalnaya,Putinka, Rovesnitza, Estafeta, ELS 49667,
ELS 57473, ELS 84847, OS 84619, OS 84735 and OS 84854; sweet cherry (sugar sum 12% and more): Orlovskaya Rosovaya, Orlovskaya Feya, Siyana, Trosnianskaya and OS 24236, ELS 24470; on ascorbic acid content (over 10.0 mg/100 g) in fruit – sour cherry: Businka, Gurtievka, Zolushka, Kapelka, Konkurentka, Muza, Orleya, Orlitza, Otrada, Studencheskaya, Tikhonovskaya, Shokoladnitza, Charovnitza and ELS 84768; sweet cherry: Orlovskaya Feya. Over 700.0 mg/100 g of phenol substances has been noted in 19 sour cherry genotypes or 41.3% of the number of studied genotypes, the following genotypes with the content of the amount of P-active substances more than 1000.0 mg/100 g were allocated: Antratzitovaya, Veteranka, Orleya, Orlitza, Shokoladnitza, ELS 16579 and ELS 84768. The allocated cultivars, elite and selected forms are of interest for breeding as a source of biochemical parameters for improved chemical composition of fruit and for production.
2. Ermakov, A.I., Arasimovich, V.V., Yarosh, N.P., Peruanskiy, Yu.V., Lukovnikova, G.A. & Ikonnikova M.I. (1987). Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (Ed.). Leningrad: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
3. Kolesnikova, A.F. (2003). Sour and sweet cherry. Moscow: AST, Folio. (In Russian).
4. Makarkina, M.A. & Sokolova, S.E. (2011). Characteristic of cherry cultivars of VNIISPK breeding on some components of chemical composition of fruit. The improvement of stone fruit crop adaptive potential and technologies of their cultivation: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 154-159). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
5. Makarkina, M.A., Pavel, A.R. & Sokolova S.E. (2012). Biological active substances in cherry fruit grown in Orel region. In Fruits and vegetables – a basis of the structure of healthy human nutrition: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 96-99). Michurinsk. (In Russian).
6. Makarkina, M.A., Dzhigadlo, E.N., Pavel, A.R., Gulyaeva,A.A. & Sokolova, S.E. (2013). Characteristic of sweet cherry cultivars grown in the Central chernozem region of Russia on chemical composition of fruit. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1, 1-7. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Sayko, V.I., Yanevskaya, L.P. & Bulbotko, G.V. (1975). Sweet cherry in Chernovitzy region. In Sour cherry and Sweet cherry: Symposium reports (pp. 32-36). (In Russian).
8. Sedova, Z.A., Osipova, Z.F. & Sokolova, S.E. (1988). Chemical and technological evaluation of fruit of new cherry varieties. In Improvement of the assortment and progressive techniques of fruit and berry cultivation. Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 75-83). Tula. (In Russian).
9. Sedova, Z.A., Leonchenko, V.G. & Astakhov, A.I. (1999). The assessment of varieties according to the chemical composition of fruit. In E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 160-167). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10. Sychev, V.G. (1975). Chemical and technological evaluation of new canning varieties of sweet cherry in the Crimea. In Sour cherry and Sweet cherry: Symposium reports (pp. 262-265). (In Russian).
11. Shirko, T.S. & Yaroshevich, I.V. (1991). Biochemical parameters and quality of fruits. Minsk: Navuka i tekhnika. (In Russian).
The studies were carried out on the plot of the fruit and berry crops’ laboratory of FSBSI FARC of the North-East (FEDERAL STATE BUDGET SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION "FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER) in 2013-2017. The aim of the research was to estimate the black currant collection for resistance to mildew in Kirov Region’s conditions, identify the sources of stability for further selection and study the influence of weather conditions on mildew affection. The objects were 14 varieties of black currant collection planted in 2011. The control variety was Vologda. A group of varieties with stability to mildew (the degree of affection was 1 point) was identified, including Mila, Sapfir (Sapphire) and Gulliver (21 percentage of the studied amount). These varieties are perspective for involving in the selection process as an initial material. The weather effect on mildew development was analyzed. A strong positive connection was determined between the total rainfall during the growth and crop forming (May—July) and mildew affection of plants (r=0.85; 0.91; 0.92, respectively). Relative air humidity during the vegetation period (r =0.75), especially in May (r=0.92), showed strong positive influence on mildew affection. The research showed high positive correlation between the hydrothermic coefficient and degree of mildew affection in the period of growth and crop forming (May—July) and during the vegetation period (r=0.89 and 0.94). The correlation coefficient between the degree of mildew affection and black current productivity in weakly stable and susceptible varieties (maximal degree of mildew affection was 3—4 points) was r=-0.74.
2. Zatsepina, I.V. (2012). Black and red currant variety resistance to pests. Plant Protection News, 4, 61-64. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Knyazev, S.D. & Ogoltsova, T.P. (2004). Black currant breeding at present. Orel: OrelGAU. (In Russian).
4. Plenkina, G.A. (2006). Some results of breeding and variety testing of black currant under conditions of the Kirov area. In Condition and Prospects of berry Growing Development in Russia: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp 238-242). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Knyazev, S.D. & Bayanova, L.V. (1999). Currants, gooseberries and their hybrids. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 351-373). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
6. Sazonov, F.F. (2009). Economic and biological estimation of initial black currant forms under conditions of the southwestern part of the Non-chernozem zone of Russia. Horticulture and viticulture, 4, 15-18. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Saltykova, T.I., & Sofronov, A.P. (2017). Estimation of black currant varieties on complex of agronomic characteristics under conditions of Kirov region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 48(1), 221-225. (In Russian, English abstract).
Studies were conducted in 2015–2017. The years significantly differed in perspiration amount in summer. The aim of the research was to study the availability of moisture to blackberry plants according to the indicators of water content and water deficit in leaves during the berry ripening in conditions of Orel region. Three blackberry cultivars and five selected genotypes assigned to the main morphological groups (erected, trailing and semi-erected/semi-trailing) were studied. Classical methods of study were used. Meteorological conditions in summer periods of 2015–2017 were analyzed, and their significant differences in August were shown, when the blackberries were ripening and monitoring and analysis were performed. As a result, it was determined that in conditions of Orel region blackberries showed good adaptability to various availability of moisture during the fruiting period, which is reflected by stable values of leaf water content in the years different in the amount of precipitation. On average by years, this indicator ranged from 57.5 to 63.3%. Water deficit, with much greater variability compared to water availability, averaged between 12 and 16.4 % and was more stable in the dry year than in the years with good water availability. This characterizes, on the one hand, the action of effective protective mechanisms of BlackBerry during moisture deficit, and on the other hand, different water-holding capacity of leaves of individual genotypes with sufficient water supply. Significant and statistically important differences in the water regime between the morphological groups of the studied samples were not revealed during the study, however, the abundance of precipitation during maturation in 2017 led to partial non-ripening of late genotypes. At the same time in the dry year of 2015, the berries were normally developed and fully ripe in all blackberry samples and had their characteristic average weight and good taste.
2. Gruner, L.A. (2014). Blackberries. In E.N. Sedov & L.A. Gruner (Eds.), Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops (vol. 5, pp. 300-308). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
3. Gruner, L.A., & Kuleshova, O.V. (2017). Blackberry winter hardiness with using winter covering and TUR retardant in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.24411/2218-5275-2017-00020. (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Dospehov, B.A. (1985): Field experiment method (with statistic processing of investigation results). Moscow: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
5. Eremin, G.V., & Gasanova, T.A. (1999). Study of heat and drought resistance of cultivars. In E.N. Sedov & T.P. Ogoltsova (Eds.), Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops (pp. 80–85). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
6. Semionova, L.G., & Dobrenkov, E.A. (2001). Adaptation potential of blackberries in conditions of the western foothills of the North Caucasus. Maykop : EDVI. (In Russian).
7. Strik, B.C., Finn, C.E., Clark, J.R., & Pilar Bañados M. (2008). Worldwide Production of Blackberries. Acta Horticulturae, 777, 209-218. https://doi.org/ 10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.777.31.
The results of studying home and foreign authors on mineral nutrition of sour and sweet cherries have been generalized for the period of 1962–2018. The requirements of the crops to soil conditions are shown. The need of trees for nutrients and the factors affecting the flow of mineral elements into plants are reflected. Information about the optimal concentration of the main macro- and microelements in the leaves of sour cherry and sweet cherry are presented. Features of the effect of single-component fertilizers (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and boron), complete mineral and organic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of fruit are shown. The effectiveness of fertilizers in the cultivation of sour cherries and sweet cherries depends on the doses, timing and methods of their application, the level of provision of soil with mobile nutrients, genotype and age of plants. Potash and nitrogen fertilizers are the most important for productivity of sour cherries and sweet cherries. Phosphorus fertilizers are effective only on acidic soils. The most effective doses of complete fertilizer are N90–180 kg, and P, K 45–120 kg DW/ha. High efficiency of non-root fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers in high-density cherry plantations is established. In the middle zone of Russia the issues of application of mineral fertilizers in intensive orchards are poorly developed. The experimental data currently available are scattered and are not yet sufficient to develop an integrated fertilizer system.
2. Georgiev, C. (1992). Influence of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on physico-chemical properties of leached brown forest soil under young sweet cherry plantations. Plant science, 29 (9/10), 61–68. (In Bulgarian, English abstract).
3. Georgiev, C. (1992). Influence of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on various backgrounds of pre-fertilization with phosphorus and potassium on the content of minerals in the leaves of young sweet cherry trees. Plant science, 29 (9/10), 77–83. (In Bulgarian, English abstract).
4. Georgiev, C. (1992). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, nutrition area and a variety on the content of nutrients in the leaves of sweet cherries. Plant science, 29 (1/2), 79–84. (In Bulgarian, English abstract).
5. Georgiev, C. (1996). Biological manifestations of fruit-bearing cherry trees depending on mineral fertilizer. Plant science, 33(6), 56–59. (In Bulgarian, English abstract).
6. Gospodinova, M., Dochev, D., Djuvinov, V., Kolev, K., Kerin V., Zlatev Z., Vichev, N., Kirkova, I., & Stoimenov, G. (2004). Influence of nitrogen fertilizer on biological and physiological features of sweet cherries on dwarf clone rootstock GM . Plant science, 41(1), 18–21. (In Bulgarian, English abstract).
7. Debelova, D.D. (2011). Frost resistance of cherry trees in connection with the use of non-root fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 28 (1),141–148. (In Russian, English abstract).
8. Jalilova, G.A. (1989). Mineral fertilizer application in sweet cherry orchard. Vestnik of the agricultural science, 3, 73–77. (In Russian).
9. Donika, I.N. (1989). Basic indices of mineral nutrition of cherry trees in intensive orchards. New in agronomical practice of fruit crop cultivation: Proc. Sci. Conf. (pp. 53–67). Kishinev. (In Russian).
10. Doroshenko, T., Ryazanova, L., Zakharchyk, N., & Maksimtsov, D. (2016). Influence of terms of boric acidb use on generative activity of stone fruit crops. Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia, 41(05), 122–131. Retrieved from http://journalkubansad.ru/pdf/16/05/12.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
11. Ilinsky, N.V. (1990). Cherry yield increase in conditions of the south-west forest-steppe of the Central-Chernozem region. (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Belarus Research Institute of Potato, Fruit and Vegetable Growing, Samokhvalovichy, Belarus. (In Russian).
12. Kozlov, N.S. (1970). Studies of comparative suitability of soils for cherry. (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Belarus Agricultural Academy, Gorky, Belarus. (In Russian).
13. Kondakov, A.K. (1991). Improving the efficiency of fertilizing fruit and berry crops in the Central-Chernozem regions. (Agri. Sci. Doct. Thesis). Leningrad State Agrarian University, Leningrad - Pushkin, Russia. (In Russian).
14. Kondakov, A.K. (2007). Fertilization of fruit trees, berries, nurseries and flower crops. Michurinsk. (In Russian).
15. Lukin, E.S., Novotortsev, A.A., & Popov, M.A. (2009). Effect of growth regulators, foliar applications of macro- and micronutriens on sour cherry sustainability and productivity. Achievements of Science and Technology of AICis, 2, 36–38. (In Russian).
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The aim of our research was to study the efficiency of zeolite-containing rock of Khotynetz deposit (Orel region) on different soil fertilities as a way of optimization of Zn and Fe uptake by berries.In conditions of the technogenic pollution in the field experiment for 4 strawberry varieties, the comparison of the efficiency of applying zeolite-containing rock (ZCR) of Khotynetz deposit was conducted at different soil fertility as a way to reduce zinc and iron supply to berries. The studied varieties showed different responsiveness to the agricultural practices used in the field experience. The efficiency of ZCR as an inactivator of toxic elements significantly depended on the soil fertility. The ZCR dose 15 t/ha on the unfertilized soil contributed to a significant reduction in Zn concentration in the berries of RubinovyKulon, Mamochka and Bylinnaya, Bogema varieties. Fe content significantly reduced in berries of RubinovyKulon when applying ZCR 15 t/ha without fertilizers and when applying ZCR 15 t/ha at N90P90K90 it was reduced in Mamochka. The significant ZCR impact on the reduction of the microelements in berries of Bogema was not revealed.
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4. Vetrova, O.A., & Mertvisheva, M.E. Zeolite effect on heavy metal content in soil in strawberry cultivation under conditions of technogenic pollution. In Complex application of chemicalization means in adaptive-landscape agriculture (pp 35-38). Moscow: Pryanishnikov All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Agrochemistry. (In Russian).
5. Ermakov, A.I., Arasimovich, V.V., Yarosh, N.P., Peruanskii, Yu.V., Lukovnikova, G.A. & Ikonnikova, M.I. (1987). Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (Ed.). Leningrad: Agropromizdat. (In Russian).
6. Zyrin, N.G., Gorbatov, V.S., Obuhov, A.I., Sadovnikova, L.K., Stasyuk, N.V., Fedorov, K.N., Malahov, S.G., Mahanko, E.P., & Kovnackiy, E.F. (1980). System of field and laboratory studies in the control of soil pollution with heavy metals. In Heavy metals in the environment (pp 13-20). Moscow: Lomonosov Moscow State University. (In Russian).
7. Izerskaya, L.A., Tzytzareva, L.K., Vorobiov, S.N., & Vorobiova, T.E. (1996). Agroecological soil control of garden plots as an element of land monitoring. Agricultural chemistry, 6, 87-88. (In Russian, English abstract).
8. Kuznetzov, M.N., Roeva, T.A., Leonicheva, E.V., & Motyleva, S.M. (2010). Effect of soil medium fertility on the efficiency of zeolite contenting rock inactivator of heavy metals in berry agrocenosis. Contemporary horticulture, 1, 40-45. (In Russian, English abstract).
9. Leontieva, L.I. (2008). Efficiency of zeolite application in raspberry and gooseberry cultivation (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Orel State Agrarian University, Orel, Russia. (In Russian).
10. Motyleva, S.M., Sosnina, M.V., Braun, D.D., Goryachev, N.S., & Belikov, A.B. (2009). Methodical instructions for heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Cu) determination in food products, food raw material and extracts of modeling media from package materials. Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
11. Motyleva, S.M. (2000). Features of heavy metal content Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Cu) in fruits, berries and rainfalls in connection with variety assessment for use in beeding. (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Recourses (VIR), Saint Petersburg, Russia. (In Russian).
12. Rusakov, N.V., Kryatov, I.A., Tonkopiy, N.I., Gumarova, Zh.Zh., Pirtahiya, N.V., Perel, S.S., & Sennikov, S.V. (2009). GN 188.8.131.521-09. Tentative allowable concentrations (TAC) of chemical substances in soil. State sanitaryepidemiological rules and standards. Moscow: Federal Hygienic and Epidemiological Center of Rospotrebnadzor. (In Russian).
13. Rusakov, N.V., Kryatov, I.A., Tonkopiy, N.I., Gumarova, Zh.Zh., Pirtahiya, N.V., & Veselov, A.P. (2006). GN 184.108.40.2061-06. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in soil. State sanitaryepidemiological rules and standards. Moscow: Federal Hygienic and Epidemiological Center of Rospotrebnadzor. (In Russian).
14. Anonymous (1999). Regionally underground content of chemical substances in soils of Orel region. Orel: The State Committee for Environmental Protection of the Oryol Region. (In Russian).
15. Roeva, T.A. (2008). Ameliorants application for reducing heavy metals entering berries of black currant (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Orel State Agrarian University, Orel, Russia. (In Russian).
16. Sennovskaya, T.V., & Sergienko, A.A. (2004). Specificity of heavy metal accumulation in gooseberry berries and leaves. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 11, 281–295 (In Russian).
17. Solovyeva, Yu.B. (2002). The influence of consequences of different systems of fertilization on the protective physiological plant functions on the soddy podzolic soil polluted by heavy metals (Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian).
18. Trots, N.M., & Batmanov, A.V. (2017). Effect of natural adsorbents on the accumulation of heavy metals by garden strawberry. Agrarian Russia, 3, 10–16. (In Russian, English abstract).
19. Tzilu, B.K. (1992). Efficiency of natural zeolite application in strawberry cultivation for increasing its productivity and reducing pollution with heavy metals (Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis). Research zonal institute of horticulture Non-chernozem zone, Moscow, Russia. (In Russian).
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In order to determine the optimal terms of strawberry in vitro introduction, four periods of isolation were studied: late winter (February), early summer (June), late summer (August) and autumn period (October). Five strawberry cultivars, Bereginya, Tzaritza, Urozhainaya TzGL and Frida, were under study. Non-rooted strawberry rosettes harvested in late October and placed in the refrigerator chamber at 2–3°C were used as an initial material for late-winter introduction. In summer and autumn the rosettes were taken from vegetating plants. The sterilization was conducted according to the generally accepted methodology with the application of 0.01% mertiolate solution. Murasige-Skuga was used as a basic nutrient medium. The explants introduced in vitro in late winter showed the greatest viability. The regeneration percentage was 76.5, on the average. The high survival rate of meristems was caused by activation of growth processes in the strawberry rosettes which came out from dormancy. Autumn term of introduction (October) showed a low output of viable explants – 45%.
2. Vysotskiy, V.A. (2011). Biotechnological methods in up-to-date gardening. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 26, 3-10. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Vysotskiy, V.A. (2016). The appearance of non true-type forms during long term in vitro cultivation of small fruit plants. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 45, 54-57. (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Beloshapkina, O.O. (2005). Biological and technological fundamentals of improving the planting stock of strawberry from viruses. Moscow: Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. (In Russian).
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6. Kukharchik, N.V., Kastritskaya, M.S., Semenas, S.E, Kolbanova, E.V., Krasinskaya, T.A., Volosevich, N.N., Solovei, O.V., Zmushko, A.A., Bozhidai, T.N., Rundya, A.P. & Malinovskaya, A.M. (2016). Reproduction of fruit and berry plants in culture in vitro. Minsk: Belaruskaya navuka. (In Russian).
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8. Sheveluha, V.S., Kalashnikova, E.A., Degtyarev, S.V., Kochieva, E.Z., Prokofev, M.I., Novikov, N.N., Kovalev, V.M., & Kalashnikov, D.V. (1998). Agricultural Biotechnology. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. (In Russian).
The content of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in organs and tissues of blackberries ((Rubus Eubatus Focke) was studied in the field experiment on gray forest soil at the plantation situated in the orchard of Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (Orel region). Blackberry plants of two genotypes (Tohrnfree cultivar and Thornfree×R.Caucasicus) hybrid) were cultivated without fertilizers and with application of N90P90K90. The plants were selected in the fruiting phase to be divided into organs (root, rhizome, biennial (fruit-bearing) shoots, primocanes (shoots of the current year) and fruits. Bark and phloem of the primocanes were separated from wood and these tissues were analyzed separately. The leaves of fruit-bearing shoots and primocanes were also analyzed separately. Maximal Zn and Cu accumulation was observed in the root and rhizome. From the above-ground organs, the conductive tissues of shoots were characterized by an increased level of Zn and Cu. Leaves of biennial shoots accumulated more of studied elements than leaves of primocanes. In Thornfree fruits there was more Zn than in fruits of the hybrid Thornfree×R.Caucasicus (1.77±0.23 and 1.49±0.19 mg/kg of dry substances, respectively), though there was less Cu (0.41±0.044 and 0.59±0.065 mg/kg of dry substances, respectively). The average level of Zn content in the blackberry plants for all organs in both studied genotypes was significantly more when growing with N90P90K90 application.
2. Bobkova, V.V., Konovalov, S.N., & Tolstoguzova, V.G. (2017). Agroecological parameters of cadmium accumulation in intensive technologies of strawberry cultivation. Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops, 4(1), 10–13. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Vetrova, O.A., Kuznetsov, M.N., Leonicheva E.V., Motyleva, S.M., & Mertvishcheva, M.E. (2014). Accumulation of heavy metals in strawberry plants grown in conditions of antropogennic pollution. Agricultural Biology, 5, 113–119. (In Russian, English abstract). (In Russian, English abstract).
4. Gomonova, N.F., Skvortzova, I.N., & Zenova, G.M. (2007). Effect of the long-term application of different fertilization systems on soddy–podzolic soils. Eurasian Soil Science, 40, 456–462. (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Gruner, L.A., & Kuleshova, O.V. (2015). Research directions and prospects of blackberry cultivation in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3, 10–16. Retrieved from http:// journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/3/43.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
6. Dubtzov, G.G., Dzaboeva, A.S., Shaova, L.G., & Zhilova, R.M. (2008). Blackberry as raw – material for manufacturing prophylactic foods. Problems of nutrition, 77(3), 79–81. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Evdokimenko, S.N., & Kulagina, V.P. (2015). Evaluation of blackberry varieties and raspberry–blackberry hybrids in conditions of the Bryansk region. Horticulture and viticulture, 4, 20–23. (In Russian, English abstract).
8. Karpova, E.A. (2008). Mobile compounds of heavy metals in plough layers of soddy podzolic soils in conditions of the continuous fertilization. Ecological Agrochemistry, MGU, Moscow, 12–29. (In Russian, English abstract).
9. Kovalevsky, A.L. (1991) Biogeochemistry of plants. Novosibirsk: Science. (In Russian).
10. Kuznetsov, M.N., Leonicheva, E.V., Roeva, T.A., Motyleva, S.M., & Leontieva, L.I. (2010). Berry plant microelement composition formation under application of zeolite containing rock as a meliorant of soils polluted with heavy metals. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo - Contemporary Horticulture, 2, 39–43. (In Russian, English abstract).
11. Leonicheva, E.V., Motyleva, S.M., Kuznetsov, M.N., Royeva, T.A., & Leontieva, L.I. (2010). Formation of microelement composition in berry plants in conditions of higher content of heavy metals in the soil. Agricultural biology, 5, 31–34. (In Russian, English abstract).
12. Leonicheva, E.V., Vetrova, O.V., Motyleva, S.M., & Mertvisheva, M.E. (2012). Varietal features of lead and nickel accumulation in strawberry plants under the conditions of technogenic pollution. Vestnik OrelGAU, 3(36), 97–100. (In Russian, English abstract).
13. Leonicheva, E.V., Leontieva, L.I., & Shavyrkina, M.A. (2015) Assessment of heavy metal content in fruit of new black berry varieties and promising genotypes. Vestnik OrelGAU, 6(57), 61-64. (In Russian, English abstract).
14. Leontieva, L.I., Kornilov, B.B., Prudnikov, P.S., & Leonicheva, E.V. (2015). Zinc and copper accumulation in raspberry organs and tissues at different levels of mineral nutrition. Vestnik OrelGAU, 6(57), 65–70. (In Russian, English abstract).
15. Leontieva, L.I., Kornilov, B.B., Prudnikov, P.S., & Leonicheva, E.V. (2014). Lead and nickel accumulation in raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) organs and tissues at different levels of mineral nutrition. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo - Contemporary Horticulture, 4, 71–81. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/4/60.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
16. Anonymous (1996). Methodology of HM (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) determination in food products, food raw materials and extracts of model media from packaging materials by high-performance liquid chromatography. (In Russian).
17. Mineev, V.G. (2004) Agrochemistry. Moscow: MGU, KolosS (In Russian).
18. Gruner, L.A. (2014). Blackberries. In E.N. Sedov & L.A. Gruner (Eds.), Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops (vol. 5, pp. 300-308). Orel: VNIISPK. (In Russian).
19. Sibirkina, A.R. (2011) The maintenance of Cu and Zn in the grass of pine near the Irtysh river in semey in Kazakhstan republic. The world of science, culture and education, 5(30), 231–235. (In Russian, English abstract).
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21. Strik, B.C. (2015). Seasonal Variation in Mineral Nutrient Content of Primocane-fruiting Blackberry Leaves. HortScience, 50, 540–545.
22. Cho, M.J., Howard, L.R., Prior, R.L. & Clark, J.R. (2004). Flavonoid glycosides and antioxidant capacity of various blackberry, blueberry and red grape genotypes determined by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84, 1771–1782. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1885.
23. Komes, D., Belscak-Cvitanovic, A., Ljubicic, I., Durgo, K., Cindric, I., Busic, A., & Vojvodic, A. (2014). Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners. Food Chemistry, 151(15), 385–393 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.087.
In the last decade among landscape designers and amateur gardeners, the popularity of ornamental shrubs with atypical summer coloring of leaves has greatly increased. Berberis ottawiensis f. purpurea Schneid (B.thunbergii×B.vulgaris, Berberidaceae Torr. Et Gray family) possessing a number of decorative qualities, i.e. spreading shape of the crown, rich purple foliage, bright red autumn color of leaves and abundant, is among these shrubs. Reproduction and active introduction into green construction of purple-leafed barberry is very important. One of the main tasks is the selection of growth substances and their concentrations for the successful economically beneficial rooting of green cuttings. An aqueous solution of indolyl-butyric acid and a fertilizer "Novofert" were used. The experiment was carried out in 3 versions, in 2 replicates, 20 cuttings per replication. Planting scheme of plants was 7 cm by 5 cm. Rooting was observed in all variants, however, when using “Novofert” the percentage of rooted plants was much higher. The average score of the root system volume was high in all variants. In the propagation of Berberis ottawiensis f. purpurea plants by soft cuttings, the following net income per 1 m² was: 4316.9 rubles when the preparation IMK (100 mg/l) was applied; 3965.4 rubles with simultaneous treatment with drugs IMC (100 mg/l) and “Novofert” (2 g/l); 5038.5 rubles when the plants were treated with “Novofert” (2 g/l). The highest profitability for obtaining qualitative rooted cuttings of Berberis ottawiensis f. purpurea by the method of soft cuttings can be achieved by using “Novofert” (2 g/l) as a stimulant rooting drug.
2. Dubovitskaya, O.Yu., Tsoi, Ì.F., Pavlenkova, G.À., Masalova, L.I., & Firsov, A.N. (2015). The gene pool conservation and basic results of plant introduction of arboretum of The AllRussian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 2, 111-122. Retrieved from http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2015/2/32.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Kurdiani, S.Z. (1908). On the comparative ability of our forest trees to vegetative reproduction by means of cuttings. Forest journal, 38(3), 306-313. (In Russian).
4. Machehina, A.V., & Goleneva, L.M. (2016). Analysis of the results of vegetative reproduction of barberry. In Priority directions of development of science, techniques and technologies: Proc. Sci. Conf (Vol. 2, pp 169-172). Kemerovo: West-Siberian Scientific Center. (In Russian, English abstract).
5. Tarasenko, M.T. (1991). Softwood cuttings of garden and forest cultures. Moscow: Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. (In Russian).
6. Shakina, T.N. (2017). Features of propagation of ornamental shrubs by cuttings in the conditions of the city of Saratov. Problems of botany of South-Siberia and Mongolia, 16, 327-331. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Shreder, R.I. (1887). Russian garden, nursery and fruit garden. Saint Petersburg. (In Russian).
This article describes the structure of modern floristic complexes of natural and anthropogenic habitats of the cities Bolkhov, Dmitrovsk, Livny, maloarkhangelsk, Mtsensk, Novosil and Orel, and characterizes native, adventive and synanthropic component of urban flora. The synanthropization index was calculated for assessment of stability of the floristic complexes of biotopes of cities. On the basis of the data obtained the following anthropotolerant types of floras: flora of specially protected natural areas (steppe habitats), the depleted flora of semi-natural habitats (forest, meadow and water habitats), the typical flora of the urbanized territories (various types of cultivated and ruderal habitats) allocated in the cities of Orel region. The simultaneous existence of different types of anthropogenically transformed floras indicates a constant process of the urban florogenesis and reflects the different phases of transformation of flor characterized by different biodiversity. The pronounced absence of attachment of the majority of synanthropic species to certain groups of biotopes violates the natural partial structure of the floristic complexes of urban biotopes and indicates their gradual transition to artificial communities. The calculation of the jaccard coefficient let be the similarity matrix of different types of urban habitats and conduct cluster analysis, which are necessary for forecasting vector of the urban florogenesis in the cities of Orel region.
2. Berezutsky, M.A. (1999). Antropogenic transformation of flora. Botanicheskii Zhurnal , 84 (6), 8-19. (In Russian).
3. Ilminskikh, N.G. (1984). Features of florogenesis in the urbanized environment. In Status and prospects of studies of the flora of an average strip of the European part of the USSR (pp 56-57). Moscow. (In Russian).
4. Ilminskikh, N.G. (1994). Ecotopological structure of the urban flora. In Urgent problems of comparative study of floras: Proc. III work meeting for comparative floristic (pp. 269-276). Saint Petersburg: Nauka. (In Russian).
5. Fomina, O.V. & Tokhtar, V.K. (2010). The structure of flora of urban aglomeration of Belgorod. Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin. Natural sciences, 21(13), 28-32. (In Russian, English abstract).